My studies now concentrate on two types of signaling pathways. One involves communication between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the cytoplasm of angiosperms. The other project involves a redox controlled, membrane bound organelle protein kinase that regulates light energy transduction and the perception of light. We have discovered a family of 5 Arabidopsis thaliana protein kinases, designated WAKs for Wall Associated Kinases, that likely provide a physical and a signaling continuum between the cell wall and the cytoplasm. All five WAKs contain a cytoplasmic protein kinase domain and span the plasma membrane to extend into the cell wall a domain that contains cysteine rich repeats. We are currently investigating WAK function in turgor control and WAK biogenesis.