Antibiotics Currently in Global Clinical Development

Note: This data visualization was originally published in February 2014.

As of December 2019, approximately 41 new antibiotics with the potential to treat serious bacterial infections were in clinical development and four were approved since the previous update in June 2019.

The below interactive resource – based on publicly available information and informed by external experts and company communication – focuses exclusively on small molecule products that act systemically (drugs that work throughout the body), contain at least one component not previously approved, and have the potential to treat serious or life-threatening infections. To view subsets of antibiotics in development, use filter options below.

Please contact [email protected]  with additions or updates.

April 2020 (XLSX) | September 2019 (PDF) | March 2019 (PDF) | September 2018 (PDF) | September 2017 (PDF)  |  March 2017 (PDF)  |  September 2016 (PDF)  |  March 2016 (PDF)  | September 2015 (PDF) | March 2015 (PDF)  |  December 2014 (PDF)  | September 2014 (PDF)  |  June 2014 (PDF)  |  February 2014 (PDF)

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Issue Brief

Tracking the Global Pipeline of Antibiotics in Development, April 2020

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Issue Brief

Drug-resistant bacteria, or superbugs, present a serious and worsening threat to human health. According to a report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2.8 million Americans acquire serious infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria each year, and 35,000 of them die as a result.

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Drug name Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Potential indication(s)
Fetroja (cefiderocol) (Does not have novel class or target) Approved Nov. 14, 2019 (U.S. FDA) Shionogi & Co. Ltd.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: CRE, CRAB, CRPA

(Is QIDP-designated)12
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Approved Nov. 14, 2019 (U.S. FDA) Shionogi & Co. Ltd.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: CRE, CRAB, CRPA

Siderophore-β-lactam (cephalosporin) (Is not novel) PBP (Is not novel)
Lasvic (lascufloxacin) (Does not have novel class or target)Currently, there is no public information available indicating that Lasvic (lascufloxacin) is in development for the U.S. market. Approved Sept. 20, 2019 (Japan PMDA) Kyorin Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.

Yes: S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: A. baumannii

No
(Is not QIDP-designated)8
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Approved Sept. 20, 2019 (Japan PMDA) Kyorin Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.

Yes: S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: A. baumannii

No Fluoroquinolone (Is not novel) Bacterial type II topoisomerase (Is not novel)
Recarbrio (imipenem/ cilastatin + relebactam) (Does not have novel class or target) Approved July 17, 2019 (U.S. FDA) Merck & Co. Inc.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: CRE, CRPA

(Is QIDP-designated)9
(Is QIDP-designated)12
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Approved July 17, 2019 (U.S. FDA) Merck & Co. Inc.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: CRE, CRPA

β-lactam (carbapenem)/ dehydropeptidase inhibitor + β-lactamase inhibitor (diazabicyclooctane) (Is not novel) PBP + β-lactamase (Is not novel)
Xenleta (lefamulin) (Has novel class or target) Approved Aug. 19, 2019 (U.S. FDA) Nabriva Therapeutics PLC

Yes: S. aureus

Possibly: Drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae

(Is QIDP-designated)8
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Approved Aug. 19, 2019 (U.S. FDA) Nabriva Therapeutics PLC

Yes: S. aureus

Possibly: Drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae

Pleuromutilin (Is novel) 50S ribosomal subunit at the peptidyl transferase center (Is not novel)
WCK 771/WCK 2349 (levonadifloxacin, alalevonadifloxacin) (Does not have novel class or target)WCK 2349 (alalevonadifloxacin) is the prodrug form of the antibiotic. New drug application submitted (India DCGI) Wockhardt Ltd.

Yes: S. aureus

No
(Is not QIDP-designated)2
(Is QIDP-designated)18
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
New drug application submitted (India DCGI) Wockhardt Ltd.

Yes: S. aureus

No Fluoroquinolone (Is not novel) Bacterial type II topoisomerase (Is not novel)
Cefepime + enmetazobactam (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 3 Allecra Therapeutics GmbH

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: ESBL

Possibly: CRE

(Is QIDP-designated)9
(Is QIDP-designated)12
(Is QIDP-designated)18
(Is QIDP-designated)27
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 3 Allecra Therapeutics GmbH

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: ESBL

Possibly: CRE

β-lactam (cephalosporin) + β-lactamase inhibitor (penicillanic acid sulfone) (Is not novel) PBP + β-lactamase (Is not novel)
Cefepime + taniborbactam (VNRX-5133) (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 3 Venatorx Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: S. aureus

Yes: CRE

Possibly: CRPA

(Is QIDP-designated)10
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 3 Venatorx Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: S. aureus

Yes: CRE

Possibly: CRPA

β-lactam (cephalosporin) + β-lactamase inhibitor (cyclic boronate) (Is not novel) PBP + β-lactamase (Is not novel)
Cefilavancin (Does not have novel class or target)Currently, there is no public information available indicating that cefilavancin is in development for the U.S. market. Phase 3 Information not currently registered on a clinical trial registry. Information obtained from the company via a corporate website, news release, and/or direct communication. R-Pharm

Yes: S. aureus

No
(Is not QIDP-designated)2
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 3 R-Pharm

Yes: S. aureus

No Glycopeptide-β-lactam (cephalosporin) hybrid (Is not novel) PG chain elongation + PBP (Is not novel)
Ceftobiprole (Does not have novel class or target)Ceftobiprole has been approved for community-acquired pneumonia and hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia in outside markets. Phase 3 Basilea Pharmaceutica Ltd.

Yes: S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: P. aeruginosa

No
(Is QIDP-designated)2
(Is QIDP-designated)8
(Is not QIDP-designated)18
(Is QIDP-designated)22
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 3 Basilea Pharmaceutica Ltd.

Yes: S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: P. aeruginosa

No β-lactam (cephalosporin) (Is not novel) PBP (Is not novel)
Contezolid (MRX-I) & contezolid acefosamil (MRX-4) (Does not have novel class or target)Contezolid acefosamil (MRX-4) is the prodrug form of the antibiotic. Phase 3 Information not currently registered on a clinical trial registry. Information obtained from the company via a corporate website, news release, and/or direct communication. MicuRx Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: E. faecium, S. aureus

No
(Is QIDP-designated)2
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 3 MicuRx Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: E. faecium, S. aureus

No Oxazolidinone (Is not novel) 50S subunit of bacterial ribosome (Is not novel)
Gepotidacin (GSK2140944) (Has novel class or target) Phase 3 GlaxoSmithKline PLC

Yes: S. aureus

Yes: Drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae

Possibly: ESBL

(Is QIDP-designated)25
(Is QIDP-designated)26
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 3 GlaxoSmithKline PLC

Yes: S. aureus

Yes: Drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae

Possibly: ESBL

Triazaacenaphthylene (Is novel) Bacterial type II topoisomerase (novel A subunit site) (Is novel)
Iclaprim (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 3 Information not currently registered on a clinical trial registry. Information obtained from the company via a corporate website, news release, and/or direct communication. Motif Bio PLC

Yes: S. aureus

No
(Is QIDP-designated)2
(Is QIDP-designated)18
(Is not QIDP-designated)27
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 3 Motif Bio PLC

Yes: S. aureus

No 2,4-diaminopyrimidine (Is not novel) Dihydrofolate reductase (Is not novel)
Ridinilazole (Has novel class or target) Phase 3 Summit Therapeutics PLC No

Yes: C. difficile

(Is QIDP-designated)6
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 3 Summit Therapeutics PLC No

Yes: C. difficile

Bis-benzimidazole (Is novel) Inhibition of cell division and reduction of toxin production (Is not novel)
Sulbactam + durlobactam (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 3 Entasis Therapeutics Inc.

Yes: A. baumannii

Yes: CRAB

(Is not QIDP-designated)4
(Is not QIDP-designated)11
(Is QIDP-designated)18
(Is QIDP-designated)27
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 3 Entasis Therapeutics Inc.

Yes: A. baumannii

Yes: CRAB

β-lactam (sulbactam)+ β-lactamase inhibitor (diazabicyclooctane) (Is not novel) PBP + β-lactamase (Is not novel)
Sulopenem/ sulopenem- etzadroxil- probenecid (Does not have novel class or target)Sulopenem- etzadroxil- probenecid is the prodrug form of the antibiotic. Phase 3 Iterum Therapeutics PLC

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: ESBL, Drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae

(Is QIDP-designated)1
(Is QIDP-designated)8
(Is QIDP-designated)9
(Is QIDP-designated)10
(Is QIDP-designated)15
(Is QIDP-designated)20
(Is QIDP-designated)25
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 3 Iterum Therapeutics PLC

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: ESBL, Drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae

β-lactam (carbapenem) (Is not novel) PBP (Is not novel)
T-4288 (solithromycin) (Does not have novel class or target)Currently, there is no public information available indicating that T-4288 (solithromycin) is in development for the U.S. market. Phase 3 Information not currently registered on a clinical trial registry. Information obtained from the company via a corporate website, news release, and/or direct communication. Toyama Chemical Co. Ltd. No

Yes: Drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae

(Is QIDP-designated)8
(Is QIDP-designated)26
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 3 Toyama Chemical Co. Ltd. No

Yes: Drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae

Macrolide (Is not novel) 50S subunit of bacterial ribosome (Is not novel)
Tebipenem/ tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide (Does not have novel class or target)Tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide is the prodrug form of the antibiotic.; Tebipenem (Orapenem) has been approved for pneumonia, otitis media, and sinusitis in Japan. Phase 3 Spero Therapeutics Inc.

Yes: K. pneumoniae

Possibly: A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa

Yes: ESBL

(Is not QIDP-designated)3
(Is QIDP-designated)8
(Is QIDP-designated)10
(Is QIDP-designated)14
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 3 Spero Therapeutics Inc.

Yes: K. pneumoniae

Possibly: A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa

Yes: ESBL

β-lactam (carbapenem) (Is not novel) PBP (Is not novel)
Zoliflodacin (ETX0914) (Has novel class or target) Phase 3 Entasis Therapeutics Inc.

Yes: S. aureus

Yes: Drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae

(Is QIDP-designated)24
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 3 Entasis Therapeutics Inc.

Yes: S. aureus

Yes: Drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae

Spiropyrimidinetrione (Is novel) Bacterial type II topoisomerase (GyrB) (Is novel)
Afabicin (Debio 1450) (Has novel class or target) Phase 2 Debiopharm International SA

Yes: S. aureus

No
(Is QIDP-designated)2
(Is QIDP-designated)5
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 2 Debiopharm International SA

Yes: S. aureus

No Benzofuran naphthyridine (Is novel) FabI (Is novel)
ARV-1801 (fusidic acid) (Does not have novel class or target)ARV-1801 (fusidic acid) has been approved for acute bacterial skin and soft tissue infections in outside markets. Phase 2 Information not currently registered on a clinical trial registry. Information obtained from the company via a corporate website, news release, and/or direct communication. Arrevus Inc.

Yes: S. aureus

No
(Is not QIDP-designated)13
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 2 Arrevus Inc.

Yes: S. aureus

No Fusidane (Is not novel) Elongation factor G (Is not novel)
Benapenem (Does not have novel class or target)Currently, there is no public information available indicating that benapenem is in development for the U.S. market. Phase 2 Information not currently registered on a clinical trial registry. Information obtained from the company via a corporate website, news release, and/or direct communication. Sihuan Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.

Yes: Enterobacter spp.

No
(Is not QIDP-designated)8
(Is not QIDP-designated)10
(Is not QIDP-designated)19
(Is not QIDP-designated)23
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 2 Sihuan Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.

Yes: Enterobacter spp.

No Carbapenem (Is not novel) PBP (Is not novel)
BOS-228 (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 2 Information not currently registered on a clinical trial registry. Information obtained from the company via a corporate website, news release, and/or direct communication. Boston Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: CRE

(Is QIDP-designated)9
(Is QIDP-designated)10
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 2 Boston Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: CRE

β-lactam (monobactam) (Is not novel) PBP (Is not novel)
Brilacidin (Has novel class or target) Phase 2 Innovation Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: S. aureus

No
(Is QIDP-designated)2
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 2 Innovation Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: S. aureus

No Defensin mimetic (Is novel) Cell membrane (Is not novel)
CG-549 (Has novel class or target) Phase 2 CrystalGenomics Inc.

Yes: S. aureus

No
(Is not QIDP-designated)2
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 2 CrystalGenomics Inc.

Yes: S. aureus

No Benzyl pyridinone (Is novel) FabI (Is novel)
DNV3837/ DNV3681 (Does not have novel class or target)DNV3837 is the prodrug form of the antibiotic. Phase 2 Deinove SA No

Yes: C. difficile

(Is QIDP-designated)6
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 2 Deinove SA No

Yes: C. difficile

Oxazolidinone- quinolone hybrid (Is not novel) 50S subunit of bacterial ribosome, bacterial type II topoisomerase (Is not novel)
Finafloxacin (Does not have novel class or target)In February 2015, FDA approved an otic suspension formulation of finafloxacin to treat acute otitis externa. Because a systemic formulation of finafloxacin has not received approval in any country, this drug remains listed in our pipeline. Phase 2 MerLion Pharmaceuticals GmbH

Yes: S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii

Possibly: Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: ESBL

(Is QIDP-designated)2
(Is QIDP-designated)9
(Is QIDP-designated)12
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 2 MerLion Pharmaceuticals GmbH

Yes: S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii

Possibly: Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: ESBL

Fluoroquinolone (Is not novel) Bacterial type II topoisomerase (Is not novel)
MGB-BP-3 (Has novel class or target) Phase 2 MGB Biopharma Ltd.

Possibly: E. faecium, S. aureus

Yes: C. difficile

(Is QIDP-designated)6
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 2 MGB Biopharma Ltd.

Possibly: E. faecium, S. aureus

Yes: C. difficile

Distamycin (Is novel) DNA minor groove binder (Is novel)
Nafithromycin (WCK 4873) (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 2 Wockhardt Ltd.

Yes: S. aureus

No
(Is QIDP-designated)8
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 2 Wockhardt Ltd.

Yes: S. aureus

No Macrolide (Is not novel) 50S subunit of bacterial ribosome (Is not novel)
Taigexyn (nemonoxacin) (Does not have novel class or target)Taigexyn (nemonoxacin) has been approved for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in Taiwan, Province of China and China. Phase 2 TaiGen Biotechnology Co.

Yes: S. aureus

No
(Is QIDP-designated)2
(Is QIDP-designated)8
(Is QIDP-designated)14
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 2 TaiGen Biotechnology Co.

Yes: S. aureus

No Quinolone (Is not novel) Bacterial type II topoisomerase (Is not novel)
TNP-2092 (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 2 TenNor Therapeutics Ltd.

Yes: E. faecium, S. aureus

Yes: C. difficile

Possibly: Drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae

(Is QIDP-designated)2
(Is QIDP-designated)7
(Is QIDP-designated)21
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 2 TenNor Therapeutics Ltd.

Yes: E. faecium, S. aureus

Yes: C. difficile

Possibly: Drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae

Rifamycin- quinolone hybrid (Is not novel) RNA polymerase, DNA gyrase, DNA topoisomerase IV (Is not novel)
Apramycin (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 1 Juvabis AG

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: CRE

(Is not QIDP-designated)16
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 Juvabis AG

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: CRE

Aminoglycoside (Is not novel) 30S subunit of bacterial ribosome (Is not novel)
CRS3123 (Has novel class or target) Phase 1 Crestone Inc.

Yes: E. faecium, S. aureus

Yes: C. difficile

(Is not QIDP-designated)6
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 Crestone Inc.

Yes: E. faecium, S. aureus

Yes: C. difficile

Diaryldiamine (Is novel) Methionyl-tRNA synthetase (Is novel)
Delpazolid (LCB01-0371) (Does not have novel class or target)Delpazolid (LCB01-0371) is also in development for tuberculosis but remains in the pipeline because it is being developed for bacterial infections. Phase 1 LegoChem Biosciences Inc. (Shanghai HaiHe Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd./ CSPC Pharmaceutical Group Ltd. licensees)

Yes: E. faecium, S. aureus

No
(Is not QIDP-designated)17
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 LegoChem Biosciences Inc. (Shanghai HaiHe Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd./ CSPC Pharmaceutical Group Ltd. licensees)

Yes: E. faecium, S. aureus

No Oxazolidinone (Is not novel) 50S subunit of bacterial ribosome (Is not novel)
ETX0282CPDP/ ETX1317 (Does not have novel class or target)ETX0282CPDP is the prodrug form of the antibiotic. Phase 1 Entasis Therapeutics Inc.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: CRE

(Is not QIDP-designated)10
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 Entasis Therapeutics Inc.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: CRE

β-lactam (cephalosporin) + β-lactamase inhibitor (diazabicyclooctane) (Is not novel) PBP + β-lactamase (Is not novel)
Ibezapolstat (ACX-362E) (Has novel class or target) Phase 1 Information not currently registered on a clinical trial registry. Information obtained from the company via a corporate website, news release, and/or direct communication. Acurx Pharmaceuticals LLC No

Yes: C. difficile

(Is QIDP-designated)6
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 Acurx Pharmaceuticals LLC No

Yes: C. difficile

DCBG {(dichlorobenzyl)guanine} (Is novel) C. difficile DNA polymerase IIIC (Is not novel)
KBP-7072 (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 1 KBP BioSciences Pharmaceutical Technical Co. Ltd.

Yes: A. baumannii

Possibly: E. faecium, S. aureus

Possibly: CRAB

(Is QIDP-designated)8
(Is not QIDP-designated)18
(Is not QIDP-designated)27
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 KBP BioSciences Pharmaceutical Technical Co. Ltd.

Yes: A. baumannii

Possibly: E. faecium, S. aureus

Possibly: CRAB

Tetracycline (Is not novel) 30S subunit of bacterial ribosome (Is not novel)
Meropenem + nacubactam (OP0595/ RG6080) (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 1 Meiji Seika Pharma Co. Ltd./ Fedora Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: P. aeruginosa

Yes: CRE

(Is not QIDP-designated)10
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 Meiji Seika Pharma Co. Ltd./ Fedora Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: P. aeruginosa

Yes: CRE

β-lactam (carbapenem) + β-lactamase inhibitor (diazabicyclooctane) (Is not novel) PBP + β-lactamase/ PBP2 (Is not novel)
Oravance (QPX-2015 + QPX-7728) (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 1 Qpex Biopharma/ Brii Biosciences

Possibly: Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: CRE

(Is not QIDP-designated)16
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 Qpex Biopharma/ Brii Biosciences

Possibly: Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: CRE

β-lactam + β-lactamase inhibitor (Is not novel) PBP + β-lactamase (Is not novel)
SPR206 (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 1 Spero Therapeutics Inc.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: CRE, CRAB, CRPA

(Is QIDP-designated)10
(Is QIDP-designated)18
(Is QIDP-designated)27
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 Spero Therapeutics Inc.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: CRE, CRAB, CRPA

Polymyxin (Is not novel) Outer membrane (Is not novel)
SPR741 (Does not have novel class or target)SPR741 is an antibiotic potentiator, which increases the entry, and therefore the efficacy, of antibiotics. The antibiotic for which SPR741 will be paired with has not been announced. Phase 1 Spero Therapeutics Inc.

Possibly: K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: CRE, CRAB, CRPA

(Is not QIDP-designated)16
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 Spero Therapeutics Inc.

Possibly: K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: CRE, CRAB, CRPA

Polymyxin (Is not novel) Outer membrane (Is not novel)
TP-271 (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 1 Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: S. aureus, A. baumannii

Possibly: CRAB

(Is QIDP-designated)8
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: S. aureus, A. baumannii

Possibly: CRAB

Tetracycline (Is not novel) 30S subunit of bacterial ribosome (Is not novel)
TP-6076 (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 1 Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: CRE, CRAB

(Is not QIDP-designated)16
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: CRE, CRAB

Tetracycline (Is not novel) 30S subunit of bacterial ribosome (Is not novel)
TXA709/ TXA707 (Has novel class or target)TXA709 is the prodrug form of the antibiotic. Phase 1 Information not currently registered on a clinical trial registry. Information obtained from the company via a corporate website, news release, and/or direct communication. Taxis Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: S. aureus

No
(Is QIDP-designated)2
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 Taxis Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: S. aureus

No FtsZ inhibitor (Is novel) Cell wall division (Is not novel)
VNRX-7145 + ceftibuten (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 1 Venatorx Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: Enterobacter spp.

Yes: CRE

(Is not QIDP-designated)16
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 Venatorx Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: Enterobacter spp.

Yes: CRE

β-lactam (cephalosporin) + β-lactamase inhibitor (cyclic boronate) (Is not novel) PBP + β-lactamase (Is not novel)
WCK 5222 (cefepime + zidebactam) (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 1 Wockhardt Ltd.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: S. aureus, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa

Yes: CRE

Possibly: CRAB, CRPA

(Is QIDP-designated)10
(Is QIDP-designated)18
(Is QIDP-designated)27
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 Wockhardt Ltd.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: S. aureus, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa

Yes: CRE

Possibly: CRAB, CRPA

β-lactam (cephalosporin) + β-lactamase inhibitor (diazabicyclooctane) (Is not novel) PBP + β-lactamase (Is not novel)

Key

1
Acute bacterial prostatitis
2
Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections
3
Acute pyelonephritis
4
Bacteremia
5
Bone and joint infections
6
C. difficile infections
7
8
Community-acquired bacterial pneumonia
9
Complicated intra-abdominal infections
10
Complicated urinary tract infections
11
Complicated urinary tract infections including acute pyelonephritis
12
Complicated urinary tract infections including pyelonephritis
13
Cystic fibrosis pulmonary exacerbations
14
Diabetic foot infection
15
Gonococcal urethritis
16
Gram-negative bacterial infections
17
Gram-positive bacterial infections
18
Hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia
19
Intra-abdominal infections
20
Pelvic inflammatory disease
21
Prosthetic joint infections
22
S. aureus bacteremia
23
Soft tissue infections
24
Uncomplicated gonorrhea
25
Uncomplicated urinary tract infections
26
Uncomplicated urogenital gonorrhea
27
Ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia

For definitions of drug development terms, visit https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/articles/2014/03/12/glossary-for-the-antibiotic-pipeline.

See the methodology section for further details.

For a multi-year analysis showing the evolution of the antibiotic pipeline since 2014, including candidates that have been removed, visit this interactive.

Antibiotics
Antibiotics
Data Visualization

The Critical Need for New Antibiotics

Quick View
Data Visualization

In the U.S., there are not enough antibiotics in development to meet current and anticipated patient needs.

States of Innovation