Antibiotics Currently in Global Clinical Development

Last Updated March 9, 2021

As of December 2020, approximately 43 new antibiotics with the potential to treat serious bacterial infections were in clinical development.

The below interactive resource – based on publicly available information and informed by external experts and company communication – focuses exclusively on small molecule products that act systemically (drugs that work throughout the body), contain at least one component not previously approved, and have the potential to treat serious or life-threatening infections. To view subsets of antibiotics in development, use filter options below.

Please contact [email protected]  with additions or updates.

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Issue Brief

Tracking the Global Pipeline of Antibiotics

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Issue Brief

Drug-resistant bacteria, or superbugs, present a serious and worsening threat to human health. According to a report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2.8 million Americans acquire serious infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria each year, and 35,000 of them die as a result.

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Drug name Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Potential indication(s)
Contezolid (MRX-I)/contezolid acefosamil (MRX-4) (Does not have novel class or target)Contezolid acefosamil (MRX-4) is the prodrug form of the antibiotic contezolid (MRX-I). New drug application submitted (China NMPA) MicuRx Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: E. faecium, S. aureus

No
(Is QIDP-designated)2
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
New drug application submitted (China NMPA) MicuRx Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: E. faecium, S. aureus

No Oxazolidinone (Is not novel) 50S subunit of bacterial ribosome (Is not novel)
Sulopenem/sulopenem etzadroxil-probenecid (Does not have novel class or target)Sulopenem etzadroxil-probenecid is the prodrug form of the antibiotic sulopenem. New drug application submitted (U.S. FDA) Iterum Therapeutics PLC

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: ESBL, Drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae

(Is QIDP-designated)1
(Is QIDP-designated)8
(Is QIDP-designated)9
(Is QIDP-designated)10
(Is QIDP-designated)15
(Is QIDP-designated)20
(Is QIDP-designated)25
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
New drug application submitted (U.S. FDA) Iterum Therapeutics PLC

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: ESBL, Drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae

β-lactam (thiopenem) (Is not novel) PBP (Is not novel)
Benapenem (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 3 Sihuan Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: ESBL

(Is not QIDP-designated)8
(Is not QIDP-designated)12
(Is not QIDP-designated)19
(Is not QIDP-designated)23
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 3 Sihuan Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: ESBL

Carbapenem (Is not novel) PBP (Is not novel)
Cefepime + taniborbactam (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 3 Venatorx Pharmaceuticals Inc./Global Antibiotic Research and Development Partnership (GARDP) (Everest Medicines II Ltd. Licensee)

Yes: K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: S. aureus

Yes: CRE, CRPA

(Is QIDP-designated)11
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 3 Venatorx Pharmaceuticals Inc./Global Antibiotic Research and Development Partnership (GARDP) (Everest Medicines II Ltd. Licensee)

Yes: K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: S. aureus

Yes: CRE, CRPA

β-lactam (cephalosporin) + β-lactamase inhibitor (cyclic boronate) (Is not novel) PBP + β-lactamase (Is not novel)
Cefilavancin (Does not have novel class or target)Currently, there is no public information available indicating that cefilavancin is in development for the U.S. market. Phase 3 Information not currently registered on a clinical trial registry. Information obtained from the company via a corporate website, news release, and/or direct communication. R-Pharm

Yes: S. aureus

No
(Is not QIDP-designated)2
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 3 R-Pharm

Yes: S. aureus

No Glycopeptide-β-lactam (cephalosporin) hybrid (Is not novel) PG chain elongation + PBP (Is not novel)
EMROK/EMROK O (Does not have novel class or target)EMROK O (alalevonadifloxacin) is the prodrug form of the antibiotic EMROK (levonadifloxacin). EMROK/EMROK O has been approved for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections including diabetic foot infections and concurrent bacteremia in India. Phase 3 Wockhardt Ltd.

Yes: S. aureus

No
(Is not QIDP-designated)2
(Is not QIDP-designated)14
(Is QIDP-designated)18
(Is not QIDP-designated)28
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 3 Wockhardt Ltd.

Yes: S. aureus

No Fluoroquinolone (Is not novel) Bacterial type II topoisomerase (Is not novel)
Exblifep (cefepime + enmetazobactam) (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 3 Allecra Therapeutics GmbH

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: ESBL

(Is QIDP-designated)9
(Is QIDP-designated)12
(Is QIDP-designated)18
(Is QIDP-designated)27
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 3 Allecra Therapeutics GmbH

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: ESBL

β-lactam (cephalosporin) + β-lactamase inhibitor (penicillanic acid sulfone) (Is not novel) PBP + β-lactamase (Is not novel)
Gepotidacin (GSK2140944) (Has novel class or target) Phase 3 GlaxoSmithKline PLC

Yes: S. aureus

Yes: Drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae

Possibly: ESBL

(Is QIDP-designated)25
(Is QIDP-designated)26
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 3 GlaxoSmithKline PLC

Yes: S. aureus

Yes: Drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae

Possibly: ESBL

Triazaacenaphthylene (Is novel) Bacterial type II topoisomerase (novel A subunit site) (Is novel)
Ridinilazole (Has novel class or target)The drug target for ridinilazole is currently being determined. Phase 3 Summit Therapeutics Inc. No

Yes: C. difficile

(Is QIDP-designated)6
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 3 Summit Therapeutics Inc. No

Yes: C. difficile

Bis-benzimidazole (Is novel) Inhibition of cell division and reduction of toxin production (Is not novel)
Sulbactam + durlobactam (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 3 Entasis Therapeutics Inc.

Yes: A. baumannii

Yes: CRAB

(Is not QIDP-designated)4
(Is not QIDP-designated)11
(Is QIDP-designated)18
(Is QIDP-designated)27
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 3 Entasis Therapeutics Inc.

Yes: A. baumannii

Yes: CRAB

β-lactam (sulbactam)+ β-lactamase inhibitor (diazabicyclooctane) (Is not novel) PBP + β-lactamase (Is not novel)
T-4288 (solithromycin) (Does not have novel class or target)Currently, there is no public information available indicating that T-4288 (solithromycin) is in development for the U.S. market. Phase 3 Toyama Chemical Co. Ltd.

Yes: E. faecium

Yes: Drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae

(Is QIDP-designated)8
(Is QIDP-designated)26
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 3 Toyama Chemical Co. Ltd.

Yes: E. faecium

Yes: Drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae

Macrolide (Is not novel) 50S subunit of bacterial ribosome (Is not novel)
Tebipenem/tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide (Does not have novel class or target)Tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide is the prodrug form of the antibiotic tebipenem. Tebipenem (Orapenem) has been approved for pneumonia, otitis media, and sinusitis in Japan. Phase 3 Spero Therapeutics Inc.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: ESBL

Possibly: C. difficile

(Is not QIDP-designated)3
(Is QIDP-designated)8
(Is QIDP-designated)10
(Is QIDP-designated)14
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 3 Spero Therapeutics Inc.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: ESBL

Possibly: C. difficile

β-lactam (carbapenem) (Is not novel) PBP (Is not novel)
WCK 5222 (cefepime + zidebactam) (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 3 Information not currently registered on a clinical trial registry. Information obtained from the company via a corporate website, news release, and/or direct communication. Wockhardt Ltd.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: S. aureus, P. aeruginosa

Yes: CRE

Possibly: CRPA

(Is QIDP-designated)10
(Is QIDP-designated)18
(Is QIDP-designated)27
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 3 Wockhardt Ltd.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: S. aureus, P. aeruginosa

Yes: CRE

Possibly: CRPA

β-lactam (cephalosporin) + β-lactamase inhibitor (diazabicyclooctane) (Is not novel) PBP + β-lactamase (Is not novel)
Zevtera (ceftobiprole) (Does not have novel class or target)Ceftobiprole has been approved for community-acquired pneumonia and hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia in markets outside the U.S. Phase 3 Basilea Pharmaceutica International Ltd.

Yes: S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: P. aeruginosa

No
(Is QIDP-designated)2
(Is QIDP-designated)8
(Is not QIDP-designated)18
(Is QIDP-designated)22
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 3 Basilea Pharmaceutica International Ltd.

Yes: S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: P. aeruginosa

No β-lactam (cephalosporin) (Is not novel) PBP (Is not novel)
Zoliflodacin (ETX0914) (Has novel class or target) Phase 3 Entasis Therapeutics Inc./Global Antibiotic Research and Development Partnership (GARDP)

Yes: S. aureus

Yes: Drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae

(Is QIDP-designated)24
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 3 Entasis Therapeutics Inc./Global Antibiotic Research and Development Partnership (GARDP)

Yes: S. aureus

Yes: Drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae

Spiropyrimidinetrione (Is novel) Bacterial type II topoisomerase (GyrB) (Is novel)
Afabicin (Debio 1450) (Has novel class or target) Phase 2 Debiopharm International SA

Yes: S. aureus

No
(Is QIDP-designated)2
(Is QIDP-designated)5
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 2 Debiopharm International SA

Yes: S. aureus

No Benzofuran naphthyridine (Is novel) FabI (Is novel)
ARV-1801 (sodium fusidate) (Does not have novel class or target)Fusidic acid has been approved for acute bacterial skin and soft tissue infections in markets outside the U.S. Phase 2 Information not currently registered on a clinical trial registry. Information obtained from the company via a corporate website, news release, and/or direct communication. Arrevus Inc.

Yes: S. aureus

No
(Is QIDP-designated)13
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 2 Arrevus Inc.

Yes: S. aureus

No Fusidane (Is not novel) Elongation factor G (Is not novel)
BOS-228 (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 2 Information not currently registered on a clinical trial registry. Information obtained from the company via a corporate website, news release, and/or direct communication. Boston Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: CRE

(Is QIDP-designated)9
(Is QIDP-designated)10
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 2 Boston Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: CRE

β-lactam (monobactam) (Is not novel) PBP (Is not novel)
Brilacidin (Has novel class or target) Phase 2 Innovation Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: S. aureus

No
(Is QIDP-designated)2
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 2 Innovation Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: S. aureus

No Defensin mimetic (Is novel) Cell membrane (Is not novel)
CRS3123 (Has novel class or target) Phase 2 Information not currently registered on a clinical trial registry. Information obtained from the company via a corporate website, news release, and/or direct communication. Crestone Inc.

Yes: E. faecium, S. aureus

Yes: C. difficile

(Is not QIDP-designated)6
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 2 Crestone Inc.

Yes: E. faecium, S. aureus

Yes: C. difficile

Diaryldiamine (Is novel) Methionyl-tRNA synthetase (Is novel)
Delpazolid (LCB01-0371) (Does not have novel class or target)Delpazolid (LCB01-0371) is also in development for tuberculosis but remains on the pipeline list because it is being developed for Gram-positive bacterial infections. Phase 2 Information not currently registered on a clinical trial registry. Information obtained from the company via a corporate website, news release, and/or direct communication. LegoChem Biosciences Inc./Nawei Biotechnology

Yes: E. faecium, S. aureus

No
(Is not QIDP-designated)17
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 2 LegoChem Biosciences Inc./Nawei Biotechnology

Yes: E. faecium, S. aureus

No Oxazolidinone (Is not novel) 50S subunit of bacterial ribosome (Is not novel)
DNV3837/ DNV3681 (Does not have novel class or target)DNV3837 is the prodrug form of the antibiotic DNV3681. Phase 2 Deinove SA No

Yes: C. difficile

(Is QIDP-designated)6
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 2 Deinove SA No

Yes: C. difficile

Oxazolidinone- quinolone hybrid (Is not novel) 50S subunit of bacterial ribosome, bacterial type II topoisomerase (Is not novel)
Finafloxacin (Does not have novel class or target)In February 2015, FDA approved an otic suspension formulation of finafloxacin to treat acute otitis externa. Because a systemic formulation of finafloxacin has not received approval in any country, this drug remains listed in our pipeline. Phase 2 MerLion Pharmaceuticals GmbH

Yes: S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii

Possibly: Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: ESBL

(Is QIDP-designated)2
(Is QIDP-designated)9
(Is QIDP-designated)12
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 2 MerLion Pharmaceuticals GmbH

Yes: S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii

Possibly: Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: ESBL

Fluoroquinolone (Is not novel) Bacterial type II topoisomerase (Is not novel)
Ibezapolstat (Has novel class or target) Phase 2 Acurx Pharmaceuticals LLC No

Yes: C. difficile

(Is QIDP-designated)6
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 2 Acurx Pharmaceuticals LLC No

Yes: C. difficile

DCBG ([dichlorobenzyl] guanine) (Is novel) C. difficile DNA polymerase IIIC (Is novel)
MGB-BP-3 (Has novel class or target) Phase 2 MGB Biopharma Ltd.

Possibly: E. faecium, S. aureus

Yes: C. difficile

(Is QIDP-designated)6
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 2 MGB Biopharma Ltd.

Possibly: E. faecium, S. aureus

Yes: C. difficile

Distamycin (Is novel) DNA minor groove binder (Is novel)
Nafithromycin (WCK 4873) (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 2 Wockhardt Ltd.

Yes: S. aureus

No
(Is QIDP-designated)8
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 2 Wockhardt Ltd.

Yes: S. aureus

No Macrolide (Is not novel) 50S subunit of bacterial ribosome (Is not novel)
Taigexyn (nemonoxacin) (Does not have novel class or target)Taigexyn (nemonoxacin) has been approved for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in markets outside the U.S. Phase 2 TaiGen Biotechnology Co.

Yes: S. aureus

No
(Is QIDP-designated)2
(Is QIDP-designated)8
(Is QIDP-designated)14
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 2 TaiGen Biotechnology Co.

Yes: S. aureus

No Quinolone (Is not novel) Bacterial type II topoisomerase (Is not novel)
TNP-2092 (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 2 TenNor Therapeutics Ltd.

Yes: E. faecium, S. aureus

Yes: C. difficile

Possibly: Drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae

(Is QIDP-designated)2
(Is QIDP-designated)7
(Is QIDP-designated)21
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 2 TenNor Therapeutics Ltd.

Yes: E. faecium, S. aureus

Yes: C. difficile

Possibly: Drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae

Rifamycin- quinolone hybrid (Is not novel) RNA polymerase, DNA gyrase, DNA topoisomerase IV (Is not novel)
Apramycin (EBL-1003) (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 1 Juvabis AG

Yes: K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: S. aureus, P. aeruginosa

Yes: CRE, CRAB

(Is not QIDP-designated)9
(Is not QIDP-designated)10
(Is not QIDP-designated)18
(Is not QIDP-designated)27
(Is not QIDP-designated)30
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 Juvabis AG

Yes: K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: S. aureus, P. aeruginosa

Yes: CRE, CRAB

Aminoglycoside (Is not novel) 30S subunit of bacterial ribosome (Is not novel)
BV100 (Does not have novel class or target)Rifabutin has been previously approved in the U.S. to prevent Mycobacterium avium infections. Phase 1 BioVersys AG

Yes: A. baumannii

Yes: CRAB

(Is QIDP-designated)18
(Is QIDP-designated)27
(Is QIDP-designated)30
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 BioVersys AG

Yes: A. baumannii

Yes: CRAB

Ansamycin (Is not novel) DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Is not novel)
CG-549 (Has novel class or target) Phase 1 CrystalGenomics Inc.

Yes: S. aureus

No
(Is not QIDP-designated)2
(Is not QIDP-designated)29
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 CrystalGenomics Inc.

Yes: S. aureus

No Benzyl pyridinone (Is novel) FabI (Is novel)
ETX0282CPDP/ ETX1317 (Does not have novel class or target)ETX0282CPDP is the prodrug form of the antibiotic ETX1317. Phase 1 Entasis Therapeutics Inc.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: CRE

(Is not QIDP-designated)10
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 Entasis Therapeutics Inc.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: CRE

β-lactam (cephalosporin) + β-lactamase inhibitor (diazabicyclooctane) (Is not novel) PBP + β-lactamase (Is not novel)
Imipenem/cilastatin + XNW4107 (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 1 Suzhou Sinovent Pharmaceutical Technology Co. Ltd.

Possibly: A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa

No
(Is not QIDP-designated)16
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 Suzhou Sinovent Pharmaceutical Technology Co. Ltd.

Possibly: A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa

No β-lactam + β-lactamase inhibitor (Is not novel) PBP + β-lactamase (Is not novel)
KBP-7072 (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 1 KBP BioSciences Pharmaceutical Technical Co. Ltd.

Yes: A. baumannii

Possibly: E. faecium, S. aureus

Yes: CRAB

(Is QIDP-designated)8
(Is not QIDP-designated)18
(Is not QIDP-designated)27
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 KBP BioSciences Pharmaceutical Technical Co. Ltd.

Yes: A. baumannii

Possibly: E. faecium, S. aureus

Yes: CRAB

Tetracycline (Is not novel) 30S subunit of bacterial ribosome (Is not novel)
MRX-8 (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 1 MicuRx Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Possibly: K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa

Possibly: CRE, CRAB, CRPA

(Is not QIDP-designated)16
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 MicuRx Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Possibly: K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa

Possibly: CRE, CRAB, CRPA

Polymyxin (Is not novel) Outer membrane (Is not novel)
Nacubactam (OP0595) (Does not have novel class or target)The β-lactam with which nacubactam will be paired will be either cefepime or aztreonam. Phase 1 Meiji Seika Pharma Co. Ltd.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: P. aeruginosa

Possibly: CRE

(Is not QIDP-designated)10
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 Meiji Seika Pharma Co. Ltd.

Yes: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: P. aeruginosa

Possibly: CRE

β-lactam + β-lactamase inhibitor (diazabicyclooctane) (Is not novel) PBP + β-lactamase / PBP2 (Is not novel)
OMNIvance (QPX7728) (Does not have novel class or target)The antibiotic with which QPX7728 will be paired has not been announced. Phase 1 Qpex Biopharma

Possibly: A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: CRE, CRAB, CRPA

(Is not QIDP-designated)16
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 Qpex Biopharma

Possibly: A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: CRE, CRAB, CRPA

β-lactam + β-lactamase inhibitor (Is not novel) PBP + β-lactamase (Is not novel)
SPR206 (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 1 Spero Therapeutics Inc./Everest Medicines

Yes: K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: CRE, CRAB, CRPA

(Is QIDP-designated)10
(Is QIDP-designated)18
(Is QIDP-designated)27
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 Spero Therapeutics Inc./Everest Medicines

Yes: K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: CRE, CRAB, CRPA

Polymyxin (Is not novel) Outer membrane (Is not novel)
SPR741 (Does not have novel class or target)SPR741 is an antibiotic potentiator, which increases the entry, and therefore the efficacy, of antibiotics. The antibiotic with which SPR741 will be paired has not been announced. Phase 1 Northern Antibiotics

Possibly: K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: CRE, CRAB

(Is not QIDP-designated)16
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 Northern Antibiotics

Possibly: K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: CRE, CRAB

Polymyxin (Is not novel) Outer membrane (Is not novel)
TP-271 (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 1 There are no active studies nor anticipated future studies for TP-271. The company intends to seek out-licensing opportunities; however, at this time, is unable to predict the likelihood of successfully out-licensing. La Jolla Pharmaceutical Company

Yes: S. aureus, A. baumannii

Possibly: CRAB, ESBL, C. difficile

(Is QIDP-designated)8
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 La Jolla Pharmaceutical Company

Yes: S. aureus, A. baumannii

Possibly: CRAB, ESBL, C. difficile

Tetracycline (Is not novel) 30S subunit of bacterial ribosome (Is not novel)
TP-6076 (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 1 There are no active studies nor anticipated future studies for TP-6076. The company intends to seek out-licensing opportunities; however, at this time, is unable to predict the likelihood of successfully out-licensing. La Jolla Pharmaceutical Company

Yes: K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: CRE, CRAB

(Is not QIDP-designated)16
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 La Jolla Pharmaceutical Company

Yes: K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, Enterobacter spp.

Yes: CRE, CRAB

Tetracycline (Is not novel) 30S subunit of bacterial ribosome (Is not novel)
TXA709/TXA707 (Has novel class or target)TXA709 is the prodrug form of the antibiotic TXA707. Phase 1 Information not currently registered on a clinical trial registry. Information obtained from the company via a corporate website, news release, and/or direct communication. Taxis Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: S. aureus

No
(Is QIDP-designated)2
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 Taxis Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: S. aureus

No Benzamide (Is novel) FtsZ (Is novel)
VNRX-7145 + ceftibuten (Does not have novel class or target) Phase 1 Venatorx Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: K. pneumoniae

Yes: CRE

(Is not QIDP-designated)16
Development phase Company Expected activity against ESKAPE pathogens? Expected activity against CDC urgent or WHO critical threat pathogen? Drug class Target
Phase 1 Venatorx Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Yes: Enterobacter spp.

Possibly: K. pneumoniae

Yes: CRE

β-lactam (cephalosporin) + β-lactamase inhibitor (cyclic boronate) (Is not novel) PBP + β-lactamase (Is not novel)

Key

1
Acute bacterial prostatitis
2
Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections
3
Acute pyelonephritis
4
Bacteremia
5
Bone and joint infections
6
C. difficile infections
7
8
Community-acquired bacterial pneumonia
9
Complicated intra-abdominal infections
10
Complicated urinary tract infections
11
Complicated urinary tract infections including acute pyelonephritis
12
Complicated urinary tract infections including pyelonephritis
13
Cystic fibrosis pulmonary exacerbations
14
Diabetic foot infection
15
Gonococcal urethritis
16
Gram-negative bacterial infections
17
Gram-positive bacterial infections
18
Hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia
19
Intra-abdominal infections
20
Pelvic inflammatory disease
21
Prosthetic joint infections
22
S. aureus bacteremia
23
Soft tissue infections
24
Uncomplicated gonorrhea
25
Uncomplicated urinary tract infections
26
Uncomplicated urogenital gonorrhea
27
Ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia
28
Concurrent bacteremia
29
Osteomyelitis
30
Bloodstream infections

For definitions of drug development terms, visit https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/articles/2014/03/12/glossary-for-the-antibiotic-pipeline.

See the methodology section for further details.

For a multi-year analysis showing the evolution of the antibiotic pipeline since 2014, including candidates that have been removed, visit this interactive.

Antibiotics
Antibiotics
Data Visualization

The Critical Need for New Antibiotics

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Data Visualization

In the U.S., there are not enough antibiotics in development to meet current and anticipated patient needs.

The front facade of the Supreme Court of the United States in Washington, DC.
ian-hutchinson-U8WfiRpsQ7Y-unsplash.jpg_master

Agenda for America

Resources for federal, state, and local decision-makers

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Data-driven policymaking is not just a tool for finding new solutions for emerging challenges, it makes government more effective and better able to serve the public interest.

Lightbulbs
Lightbulbs

States of Innovation

Data-driven state policy innovations across America

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Data-driven policymaking is not just a tool for finding new solutions for difficult challenges. When states serve their traditional role as laboratories of innovation, they increase the American people’s confidence that the government they choose—no matter the size—can be effective, responsive, and in the public interest.