Analysis Shows Continued Deficiencies in Antibiotic Development since 2014

Visualization tool lets users track changes in the pipeline from 2014

Continued Deficiencies in Antibiotic Development since 2014
Last Updated March 9, 2021

The Pew Charitable Trusts has tracked the pipeline of antibiotics in clinical development since 2014 and has aggregated updates into an interactive tool that illustrates trends in the pipeline—as drugs are either approved, discontinued from development, or remain stagnant. This longitudinal assessment underscores the long-standing concerns of scientists, doctors, public health officials, and other stakeholders regarding the dangerously low number of antibiotics in development to address current and future patient needs, particularly for treating the most urgent bacterial threats, such as Gram-negative pathogens, and those prioritized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization.

Click the play button to see the evolution of the antibiotic pipeline since 2014, or click on an individual year to see the status of the pipeline at a particular point in time. (To view without animation, uncheck the “animate change” box.) To see additional information about each drug, hover over or tap any of the rectangles.

Visually impaired users may wish to skip to the summary of the content.

Antibiotics in Development Since 2014

Antibiotic

Expected to treat CDC urgent pathogen

Novel antibiotics

Expected to treat Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens

PHASE 1P1
PHASE 2P2
PHASE 3P3
APPLICATIONNDA
APPROVED

Total approved antibiotics since 2014: 4

Total discontinued antibiotics since 2014: 6

2014

Phase 1

Active

  • Afabicin (Debio 1450) (Debiopharm International SA)
  • BAL30072 (Basilea Pharmaceutica Ltd.)
  • CRS3123 (Crestone Inc.)
  • Delpazolid (LCB01-0371) (LegoChem Biosciences Inc./Nawei Biotechnology)
  • Nacubactam (OP0595) (Meiji Seika Pharma Co. Ltd.)
  • Contezolid (MRX-I)/contezolid acefosamil (MRX-4) (MicuRx Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
  • TD-1607 (Theravance Biopharma Inc.)
  • EMROK/EMROK O (Wockhardt Ltd.)

Inactive

  • ACHN-975 (Achaogen Inc.)
  • EDP-788 (Enanta Pharmaceuticals Inc.)

Phase 2

Active

  • Avarofloxacin (Allergan PLC (formerly Actavis PLC))
  • Brilacidin (Innovation Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
  • Fetroja (cefiderocol) (Shionogi & Co. Ltd.)
  • Ceftaroline + avibactam (AstraZeneca PLC/Forest Laboratories Inc.)
  • CG-549 (CrystalGenomics Inc.)
  • Finafloxacin (MerLion Pharmaceuticals GmbH)
  • Gepotidacin (GSK2140944) (GlaxoSmithKline PLC)
  • Recarbrio (imipenem/cilastatin + relebactam) (Merck & Co. Inc.)
  • Xenleta (lefamulin) (Nabriva Therapeutics PLC)
  • Murepavadin (POL7080) (Polyphor AG)
  • Taigexyn (nemonoxacin) (TaiGen Biotechnology Co.)
  • Nuzyra (omadacycline) (Paratek Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
  • Radezolid (Melinta Therapeutics Inc.)
  • Ramoplanin (Nanotherapeutics Inc.)
  • Ridinilazole (Summit Therapeutics Inc.)
  • Zabofloxacin (Dong Wha Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.)
  • Zoliflodacin (ETX0914) (Entasis Therapeutics Inc./Global Antibiotic Research and Development Partnership (GARDP))

Inactive

  • Cefilavacin (R-Pharm)
  • GSK-1322322 (GlaxoSmithKline PLC)
  • LFF571 (Novartis AG)

Phase 3

Active

  • Baxdela (delafloxacin) (Melinta Therapeutics Inc.)
  • Cadazolid (Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd.)
  • Xerava (eravacycline) (Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
  • Zemdri (plazomicin) (Achaogen Inc.)
  • T-4288 (solithromycin) (Toyama Chemical Co. Ltd.)
  • Surotomycin (Merck & Co. Inc. (formerly Cubist Pharmaceuticals Inc.))
  • ARV-1801 (sodium fusidate) (Arrevus Inc.)
  • Vabomere (meropenem + vaborbactam) (The Medicines Company)

Inactive

  • Zevtera (ceftobiprole) (Basilea Pharmaceutica International Ltd.)

New drug application

Active

  • Avycaz (ceftazidime + avibactam) (AstraZeneca PLC/Actavis PLC)

Inactive

    Approved

    Active

    • Dalvance (dalbavancin) (Durata Therapeutics Inc.)
    • Orbactiv (oritavancin) (The Medicines Company)
    • Sivextro (tedizolid) (Cubist Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
    • Zerbaxa (ceftolozane + tazobactam) (Cubist Pharmaceuticals Inc.)

    Inactive

      2015

      Phase 1

      Active

      • BAL30072 (Basilea Pharmaceutica Ltd.)
      • CRS3123 (Crestone Inc.)
      • Delpazolid (LCB01-0371) (LegoChem Biosciences Inc./Nawei Biotechnology)
      • Nacubactam (OP0595) (Meiji Seika Pharma Co. Ltd.)
      • MGB-BP-3 (MGB Biopharma Ltd.)
      • Nafithromycin (WCK 4873) (Wockhardt Ltd.)
      • TD-1607 (Theravance Biopharma Inc.)
      • EMROK/EMROK O (Wockhardt Ltd.)

      Inactive

      • ACHN-975 (Achaogen Inc.)
      • EDP-788 (Enanta Pharmaceuticals Inc.)

      Phase 2

      Active

      • Afabicin (Debio 1450) (Debiopharm International SA)
      • Avarofloxacin (Allergan PLC (formerly Actavis PLC))
      • Brilacidin (Innovation Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
      • Fetroja (cefiderocol) (Shionogi & Co. Ltd.)
      • Ceftaroline + avibactam (AstraZeneca PLC/Forest Laboratories Inc.)
      • CG-549 (CrystalGenomics Inc.)
      • Finafloxacin (MerLion Pharmaceuticals GmbH)
      • Gepotidacin (GSK2140944) (GlaxoSmithKline PLC)
      • Contezolid (MRX-I)/contezolid acefosamil (MRX-4) (MicuRx Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
      • Murepavadin (POL7080) (Polyphor AG)
      • Taigexyn (nemonoxacin) (TaiGen Biotechnology Co.)
      • Radezolid (Melinta Therapeutics Inc.)
      • Ramoplanin (Nanotherapeutics Inc.)
      • Ridinilazole (Summit Therapeutics Inc.)
      • Zabofloxacin (Dong Wha Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.)
      • Zoliflodacin (ETX0914) (Entasis Therapeutics Inc./Global Antibiotic Research and Development Partnership (GARDP))

      Inactive

      • Cefilavacin (R-Pharm)
      • GSK-1322322 (GlaxoSmithKline PLC)
      • LFF571 (Novartis AG)

      Phase 3

      Active

      • Baxdela (delafloxacin) (Melinta Therapeutics Inc.)
      • Cadazolid (Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd.)
      • Xerava (eravacycline) (Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
      • Iclaprim (Motif Bio PLC)
      • Recarbrio (imipenem/cilastatin + relebactam) (Merck & Co. Inc.)
      • Xenleta (lefamulin) (Nabriva Therapeutics PLC)
      • Nuzyra (omadacycline) (Paratek Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
      • Zemdri (plazomicin) (Achaogen Inc.)
      • T-4288 (solithromycin) (Toyama Chemical Co. Ltd.)
      • Surotomycin (Merck & Co. Inc. (formerly Cubist Pharmaceuticals Inc.))
      • ARV-1801 (sodium fusidate) (Arrevus Inc.)
      • Vabomere (meropenem + vaborbactam) (The Medicines Company)

      Inactive

      • Zevtera (ceftobiprole) (Basilea Pharmaceutica International Ltd.)

      New drug application

      Active

        Inactive

          Approved

          Active

          • Avycaz (ceftazidime + avibactam) (AstraZeneca PLC/Actavis PLC)
          • Dalvance (dalbavancin) (Durata Therapeutics Inc.)
          • Orbactiv (oritavancin) (The Medicines Company)
          • Sivextro (tedizolid) (Cubist Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
          • Zerbaxa (ceftolozane + tazobactam) (Cubist Pharmaceuticals Inc.)

          Inactive

            2016

            Phase 1

            Active

            • WCK 5222 (cefepime + zidebactam) (Wockhardt Ltd.)
            • CRS3123 (Crestone Inc.)
            • Delpazolid (LCB01-0371) (LegoChem Biosciences Inc./Nawei Biotechnology)
            • GSK-3342830 (GlaxoSmithKline PLC (Shionogi licensee))
            • KBP-7072 (KBP BioSciences Pharmaceutical Technical Co. Ltd.)
            • DNV3837/DNV3681 (Deinove SA)
            • Nacubactam (OP0595) (Meiji Seika Pharma Co. Ltd.)
            • MGB-BP-3 (MGB Biopharma Ltd.)
            • Nafithromycin (WCK 4873) (Wockhardt Ltd.)
            • TD-1607 (Theravance Biopharma Inc.)
            • TP-271 (La Jolla Pharmaceutical Company)
            • TP-6076 (La Jolla Pharmaceutical Company)
            • EMROK/EMROK O (Wockhardt Ltd.)

            Inactive

            • ACHN-975 (Achaogen Inc.)
            • BAL30072 (Basilea Pharmaceutica Ltd.)
            • EDP-788 (Enanta Pharmaceuticals Inc.)

            Phase 2

            Active

            • Afabicin (Debio 1450) (Debiopharm International SA)
            • Brilacidin (Innovation Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
            • Ceftaroline + avibactam (AstraZeneca PLC/Forest Laboratories Inc.)
            • CG-549 (CrystalGenomics Inc.)
            • Finafloxacin (MerLion Pharmaceuticals GmbH)
            • Gepotidacin (GSK2140944) (GlaxoSmithKline PLC)
            • Contezolid (MRX-I)/contezolid acefosamil (MRX-4) (MicuRx Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
            • Murepavadin (POL7080) (Polyphor AG)
            • Taigexyn (nemonoxacin) (TaiGen Biotechnology Co.)
            • Ramoplanin (Nanotherapeutics Inc.)
            • Ridinilazole (Summit Therapeutics Inc.)
            • Zoliflodacin (ETX0914) (Entasis Therapeutics Inc./Global Antibiotic Research and Development Partnership (GARDP))

            Inactive

            • Avarofloxacin (Allergan PLC (formerly Actavis PLC))
            • Cefilavacin (R-Pharm)
            • GSK-1322322 (GlaxoSmithKline PLC)
            • LFF571 (Novartis AG)
            • Radezolid (Melinta Therapeutics Inc.)

            Phase 3

            Active

            • Cadazolid (Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd.)
            • Fetroja (cefiderocol) (Shionogi & Co. Ltd.)
            • Xerava (eravacycline) (Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
            • Iclaprim (Motif Bio PLC)
            • Recarbrio (imipenem/cilastatin + relebactam) (Merck & Co. Inc.)
            • Xenleta (lefamulin) (Nabriva Therapeutics PLC)
            • Nuzyra (omadacycline) (Paratek Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
            • Zemdri (plazomicin) (Achaogen Inc.)
            • ARV-1801 (sodium fusidate) (Arrevus Inc.)
            • Vabomere (meropenem + vaborbactam) (The Medicines Company)
            • Zabofloxacin (Dong Wha Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.)

            Inactive

            • Zevtera (ceftobiprole) (Basilea Pharmaceutica International Ltd.)
            • Surotomycin (Merck & Co. Inc. (formerly Cubist Pharmaceuticals Inc.))

            New drug application

            Active

            • Baxdela (delafloxacin) (Melinta Therapeutics Inc.)
            • T-4288 (solithromycin) (Toyama Chemical Co. Ltd.)

            Inactive

              Approved

              Active

              • Avycaz (ceftazidime + avibactam) (AstraZeneca PLC/Actavis PLC)
              • Dalvance (dalbavancin) (Durata Therapeutics Inc.)
              • Orbactiv (oritavancin) (The Medicines Company)
              • Sivextro (tedizolid) (Cubist Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
              • Zerbaxa (ceftolozane + tazobactam) (Cubist Pharmaceuticals Inc.)

              Inactive

                2017

                Phase 1

                Active

                • AIC499 (AiCuris Anti-infective Cures GmbH)
                • Cefepime + taniborbactam (Venatorx Pharmaceuticals Inc./Global Antibiotic Research and Development Partnership (GARDP) (Everest Medicines II Ltd. Licensee))
                • WCK 5222 (cefepime + zidebactam) (Wockhardt Ltd.)
                • CRS3123 (Crestone Inc.)
                • Delpazolid (LCB01-0371) (LegoChem Biosciences Inc./Nawei Biotechnology)
                • DS-2969 (Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd.)
                • Sulbactam + durlobactam (Entasis Therapeutics Inc.)
                • GSK-3342830 (GlaxoSmithKline PLC (Shionogi licensee))
                • KBP-7072 (KBP BioSciences Pharmaceutical Technical Co. Ltd.)
                • DNV3837/DNV3681 (Deinove SA)
                • Nacubactam (OP0595) (Meiji Seika Pharma Co. Ltd.)
                • MGB-BP-3 (MGB Biopharma Ltd.)
                • SPR741 (Northern Antibiotics)
                • Tebipenem/tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide (Spero Therapeutics Inc.)
                • TP-271 (La Jolla Pharmaceutical Company)
                • TP-6076 (La Jolla Pharmaceutical Company)

                Inactive

                • ACHN-975 (Achaogen Inc.)
                • BAL30072 (Basilea Pharmaceutica Ltd.)
                • EDP-788 (Enanta Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                • TD-1607 (Theravance Biopharma Inc.)

                Phase 2

                Active

                • Afabicin (Debio 1450) (Debiopharm International SA)
                • BOS-228 (Boston Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                • Brilacidin (Innovation Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                • Exblifep (cefepime + enmetazobactam) (Allecra Therapeutics GmbH)
                • CG-549 (CrystalGenomics Inc.)
                • Finafloxacin (MerLion Pharmaceuticals GmbH)
                • Gepotidacin (GSK2140944) (GlaxoSmithKline PLC)
                • Murepavadin (POL7080) (Polyphor AG)
                • Nafithromycin (WCK 4873) (Wockhardt Ltd.)
                • Taigexyn (nemonoxacin) (TaiGen Biotechnology Co.)
                • OPS-2071 (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.)
                • Ridinilazole (Summit Therapeutics Inc.)
                • EMROK/EMROK O (Wockhardt Ltd.)
                • Zoliflodacin (ETX0914) (Entasis Therapeutics Inc./Global Antibiotic Research and Development Partnership (GARDP))

                Inactive

                • Avarofloxacin (Allergan PLC (formerly Actavis PLC))
                • Ceftaroline + avibactam (AstraZeneca PLC/Forest Laboratories Inc.)
                • GSK-1322322 (GlaxoSmithKline PLC)
                • LFF571 (Novartis AG)
                • Radezolid (Melinta Therapeutics Inc.)
                • Ramoplanin (Nanotherapeutics Inc.)

                Phase 3

                Active

                • Cadazolid (Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd.)
                • Fetroja (cefiderocol) (Shionogi & Co. Ltd.)
                • Cefilavacin (R-Pharm)
                • Zevtera (ceftobiprole) (Basilea Pharmaceutica International Ltd.)
                • Xerava (eravacycline) (Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                • Iclaprim (Motif Bio PLC)
                • Recarbrio (imipenem/cilastatin + relebactam) (Merck & Co. Inc.)
                • Lasvic (lascufloxacin) (Kyorin Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.)
                • Xenleta (lefamulin) (Nabriva Therapeutics PLC)
                • Contezolid (MRX-I)/contezolid acefosamil (MRX-4) (MicuRx Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                • Nuzyra (omadacycline) (Paratek Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                • T-4288 (solithromycin) (Toyama Chemical Co. Ltd.)
                • Sulopenem/sulopenem etzadroxil-probenecid (Iterum Therapeutics PLC)
                • ARV-1801 (sodium fusidate) (Arrevus Inc.)
                • Zabofloxacin (Dong Wha Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.)

                Inactive

                • Surotomycin (Merck & Co. Inc. (formerly Cubist Pharmaceuticals Inc.))

                New drug application

                Active

                • Zemdri (plazomicin) (Achaogen Inc.)

                Inactive

                  Approved

                  Active

                  • Avycaz (ceftazidime + avibactam) (AstraZeneca PLC/Actavis PLC)
                  • Baxdela (delafloxacin) (Melinta Therapeutics Inc.)
                  • Dalvance (dalbavancin) (Durata Therapeutics Inc.)
                  • Orbactiv (oritavancin) (The Medicines Company)
                  • Sivextro (tedizolid) (Cubist Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                  • Vabomere (meropenem + vaborbactam) (The Medicines Company)
                  • Zerbaxa (ceftolozane + tazobactam) (Cubist Pharmaceuticals Inc.)

                  Inactive

                    2018

                    Phase 1

                    Active

                    • Ibezapolstat (Acurx Pharmaceuticals LLC)
                    • AIC499 (AiCuris Anti-infective Cures GmbH)
                    • Cefepime + taniborbactam (Venatorx Pharmaceuticals Inc./Global Antibiotic Research and Development Partnership (GARDP) (Everest Medicines II Ltd. Licensee))
                    • WCK 5222 (cefepime + zidebactam) (Wockhardt Ltd.)
                    • CRS3123 (Crestone Inc.)
                    • Delpazolid (LCB01-0371) (LegoChem Biosciences Inc./Nawei Biotechnology)
                    • ETX0282CPDP/ETX1317 (Entasis Therapeutics Inc.)
                    • KBP-7072 (KBP BioSciences Pharmaceutical Technical Co. Ltd.)
                    • DNV3837/DNV3681 (Deinove SA)
                    • Nacubactam (OP0595) (Meiji Seika Pharma Co. Ltd.)
                    • MGB-BP-3 (MGB Biopharma Ltd.)
                    • SPR206 (Spero Therapeutics Inc./Everest Medicines)
                    • SPR741 (Northern Antibiotics)
                    • TP-271 (La Jolla Pharmaceutical Company)
                    • TP-6076 (La Jolla Pharmaceutical Company)

                    Inactive

                    • ACHN-975 (Achaogen Inc.)
                    • BAL30072 (Basilea Pharmaceutica Ltd.)
                    • DS-2969 (Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd.)
                    • EDP-788 (Enanta Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                    • GSK-3342830 (GlaxoSmithKline PLC (Shionogi licensee))
                    • TD-1607 (Theravance Biopharma Inc.)

                    Phase 2

                    Active

                    • Afabicin (Debio 1450) (Debiopharm International SA)
                    • BOS-228 (Boston Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                    • Brilacidin (Innovation Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                    • CG-549 (CrystalGenomics Inc.)
                    • Sulbactam + durlobactam (Entasis Therapeutics Inc.)
                    • Finafloxacin (MerLion Pharmaceuticals GmbH)
                    • Gepotidacin (GSK2140944) (GlaxoSmithKline PLC)
                    • Nafithromycin (WCK 4873) (Wockhardt Ltd.)
                    • Taigexyn (nemonoxacin) (TaiGen Biotechnology Co.)
                    • OPS-2071 (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.)
                    • Zoliflodacin (ETX0914) (Entasis Therapeutics Inc./Global Antibiotic Research and Development Partnership (GARDP))

                    Inactive

                    • Avarofloxacin (Allergan PLC (formerly Actavis PLC))
                    • Ceftaroline + avibactam (AstraZeneca PLC/Forest Laboratories Inc.)
                    • GSK-1322322 (GlaxoSmithKline PLC)
                    • LFF571 (Novartis AG)
                    • Radezolid (Melinta Therapeutics Inc.)
                    • Ramoplanin (Nanotherapeutics Inc.)

                    Phase 3

                    Active

                    • Exblifep (cefepime + enmetazobactam) (Allecra Therapeutics GmbH)
                    • Fetroja (cefiderocol) (Shionogi & Co. Ltd.)
                    • Cefilavacin (R-Pharm)
                    • Zevtera (ceftobiprole) (Basilea Pharmaceutica International Ltd.)
                    • Recarbrio (imipenem/cilastatin + relebactam) (Merck & Co. Inc.)
                    • Contezolid (MRX-I)/contezolid acefosamil (MRX-4) (MicuRx Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                    • Murepavadin (POL7080) (Polyphor AG)
                    • Ridinilazole (Summit Therapeutics Inc.)
                    • T-4288 (solithromycin) (Toyama Chemical Co. Ltd.)
                    • Tebipenem/tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide (Spero Therapeutics Inc.)
                    • Sulopenem/sulopenem etzadroxil-probenecid (Iterum Therapeutics PLC)
                    • ARV-1801 (sodium fusidate) (Arrevus Inc.)
                    • EMROK/EMROK O (Wockhardt Ltd.)

                    Inactive

                    • Cadazolid (Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd.)
                    • Surotomycin (Merck & Co. Inc. (formerly Cubist Pharmaceuticals Inc.))
                    • Zabofloxacin (Dong Wha Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.)

                    New drug application

                    Active

                    • Iclaprim (Motif Bio PLC)
                    • Lasvic (lascufloxacin) (Kyorin Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.)
                    • Xenleta (lefamulin) (Nabriva Therapeutics PLC)

                    Inactive

                      Approved

                      Active

                      • Avycaz (ceftazidime + avibactam) (AstraZeneca PLC/Actavis PLC)
                      • Baxdela (delafloxacin) (Melinta Therapeutics Inc.)
                      • Dalvance (dalbavancin) (Durata Therapeutics Inc.)
                      • Xerava (eravacycline) (Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                      • Nuzyra (omadacycline) (Paratek Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                      • Orbactiv (oritavancin) (The Medicines Company)
                      • Zemdri (plazomicin) (Achaogen Inc.)
                      • Sivextro (tedizolid) (Cubist Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                      • Vabomere (meropenem + vaborbactam) (The Medicines Company)
                      • Zerbaxa (ceftolozane + tazobactam) (Cubist Pharmaceuticals Inc.)

                      Inactive

                        2019

                        Phase 1

                        Active

                        • Ibezapolstat (Acurx Pharmaceuticals LLC)
                        • WCK 5222 (cefepime + zidebactam) (Wockhardt Ltd.)
                        • CRS3123 (Crestone Inc.)
                        • Delpazolid (LCB01-0371) (LegoChem Biosciences Inc./Nawei Biotechnology)
                        • ETX0282CPDP/ETX1317 (Entasis Therapeutics Inc.)
                        • KBP-7072 (KBP BioSciences Pharmaceutical Technical Co. Ltd.)
                        • Nacubactam (OP0595) (Meiji Seika Pharma Co. Ltd.)
                        • SPR206 (Spero Therapeutics Inc./Everest Medicines)
                        • SPR741 (Northern Antibiotics)
                        • TP-271 (La Jolla Pharmaceutical Company)
                        • TP-6076 (La Jolla Pharmaceutical Company)
                        • Apramycin (EBL-1003) (Juvabis AG)
                        • OMNIvance (QPX7728) (Qpex Biopharma)
                        • TXA709/TXA707 (Taxis Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                        • VNRX-7145 + ceftibuten (Venatorx Pharmaceuticals Inc.)

                        Inactive

                        • ACHN-975 (Achaogen Inc.)
                        • AIC499 (AiCuris Anti-infective Cures GmbH)
                        • BAL30072 (Basilea Pharmaceutica Ltd.)
                        • DS-2969 (Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd.)
                        • EDP-788 (Enanta Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                        • GSK-3342830 (GlaxoSmithKline PLC (Shionogi licensee))
                        • TD-1607 (Theravance Biopharma Inc.)

                        Phase 2

                        Active

                        • Afabicin (Debio 1450) (Debiopharm International SA)
                        • BOS-228 (Boston Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                        • Brilacidin (Innovation Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                        • CG-549 (CrystalGenomics Inc.)
                        • Finafloxacin (MerLion Pharmaceuticals GmbH)
                        • DNV3837/DNV3681 (Deinove SA)
                        • MGB-BP-3 (MGB Biopharma Ltd.)
                        • Nafithromycin (WCK 4873) (Wockhardt Ltd.)
                        • Taigexyn (nemonoxacin) (TaiGen Biotechnology Co.)
                        • ARV-1801 (sodium fusidate) (Arrevus Inc.)
                        • Benapenem (Sihuan Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.)
                        • TNP-2092 (TenNor Therapeutics Ltd.)

                        Inactive

                        • Avarofloxacin (Allergan PLC (formerly Actavis PLC))
                        • Ceftaroline + avibactam (AstraZeneca PLC/Forest Laboratories Inc.)
                        • GSK-1322322 (GlaxoSmithKline PLC)
                        • LFF571 (Novartis AG)
                        • OPS-2071 (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.)
                        • Radezolid (Melinta Therapeutics Inc.)
                        • Ramoplanin (Nanotherapeutics Inc.)

                        Phase 3

                        Active

                        • Exblifep (cefepime + enmetazobactam) (Allecra Therapeutics GmbH)
                        • Cefepime + taniborbactam (Venatorx Pharmaceuticals Inc./Global Antibiotic Research and Development Partnership (GARDP) (Everest Medicines II Ltd. Licensee))
                        • Cefilavacin (R-Pharm)
                        • Zevtera (ceftobiprole) (Basilea Pharmaceutica International Ltd.)
                        • Sulbactam + durlobactam (Entasis Therapeutics Inc.)
                        • Gepotidacin (GSK2140944) (GlaxoSmithKline PLC)
                        • Iclaprim (Motif Bio PLC)
                        • Contezolid (MRX-I)/contezolid acefosamil (MRX-4) (MicuRx Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                        • Ridinilazole (Summit Therapeutics Inc.)
                        • T-4288 (solithromycin) (Toyama Chemical Co. Ltd.)
                        • Tebipenem/tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide (Spero Therapeutics Inc.)
                        • Sulopenem/sulopenem etzadroxil-probenecid (Iterum Therapeutics PLC)
                        • Zoliflodacin (ETX0914) (Entasis Therapeutics Inc./Global Antibiotic Research and Development Partnership (GARDP))

                        Inactive

                        • Cadazolid (Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd.)
                        • Murepavadin (POL7080) (Polyphor AG)
                        • Surotomycin (Merck & Co. Inc. (formerly Cubist Pharmaceuticals Inc.))
                        • Zabofloxacin (Dong Wha Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.)

                        New drug application

                        Active

                        • EMROK/EMROK O (Wockhardt Ltd.)

                        Inactive

                          Approved

                          Active

                          • Avycaz (ceftazidime + avibactam) (AstraZeneca PLC/Actavis PLC)
                          • Baxdela (delafloxacin) (Melinta Therapeutics Inc.)
                          • Fetroja (cefiderocol) (Shionogi & Co. Ltd.)
                          • Dalvance (dalbavancin) (Durata Therapeutics Inc.)
                          • Xerava (eravacycline) (Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                          • Recarbrio (imipenem/cilastatin + relebactam) (Merck & Co. Inc.)
                          • Lasvic (lascufloxacin) (Kyorin Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.)
                          • Xenleta (lefamulin) (Nabriva Therapeutics PLC)
                          • Nuzyra (omadacycline) (Paratek Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                          • Orbactiv (oritavancin) (The Medicines Company)
                          • Zemdri (plazomicin) (Achaogen Inc.)
                          • Sivextro (tedizolid) (Cubist Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                          • Vabomere (meropenem + vaborbactam) (The Medicines Company)
                          • Zerbaxa (ceftolozane + tazobactam) (Cubist Pharmaceuticals Inc.)

                          Inactive

                            2020

                            Phase 1

                            Active

                            • CG-549 (CrystalGenomics Inc.)
                            • ETX0282CPDP/ETX1317 (Entasis Therapeutics Inc.)
                            • KBP-7072 (KBP BioSciences Pharmaceutical Technical Co. Ltd.)
                            • Nacubactam (OP0595) (Meiji Seika Pharma Co. Ltd.)
                            • SPR206 (Spero Therapeutics Inc./Everest Medicines)
                            • SPR741 (Northern Antibiotics)
                            • TP-271 (La Jolla Pharmaceutical Company)
                            • TP-6076 (La Jolla Pharmaceutical Company)
                            • Apramycin (EBL-1003) (Juvabis AG)
                            • OMNIvance (QPX7728) (Qpex Biopharma)
                            • TXA709/TXA707 (Taxis Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                            • VNRX-7145 + ceftibuten (Venatorx Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                            • BV100 (BioVersys AG)
                            • Imipenem/cilastatin + XNW4107 (Suzhou Sinovent Pharmaceutical Technology Co. Ltd.)
                            • MRX-8 (MicuRx Pharmaceuticals Inc.)

                            Inactive

                            • ACHN-975 (Achaogen Inc.)
                            • AIC499 (AiCuris Anti-infective Cures GmbH)
                            • BAL30072 (Basilea Pharmaceutica Ltd.)
                            • DS-2969 (Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd.)
                            • EDP-788 (Enanta Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                            • GSK-3342830 (GlaxoSmithKline PLC (Shionogi licensee))
                            • TD-1607 (Theravance Biopharma Inc.)

                            Phase 2

                            Active

                            • Ibezapolstat (Acurx Pharmaceuticals LLC)
                            • Afabicin (Debio 1450) (Debiopharm International SA)
                            • BOS-228 (Boston Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                            • Brilacidin (Innovation Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                            • CRS3123 (Crestone Inc.)
                            • Delpazolid (LCB01-0371) (LegoChem Biosciences Inc./Nawei Biotechnology)
                            • Finafloxacin (MerLion Pharmaceuticals GmbH)
                            • DNV3837/DNV3681 (Deinove SA)
                            • MGB-BP-3 (MGB Biopharma Ltd.)
                            • Nafithromycin (WCK 4873) (Wockhardt Ltd.)
                            • Taigexyn (nemonoxacin) (TaiGen Biotechnology Co.)
                            • ARV-1801 (sodium fusidate) (Arrevus Inc.)
                            • TNP-2092 (TenNor Therapeutics Ltd.)

                            Inactive

                            • Avarofloxacin (Allergan PLC (formerly Actavis PLC))
                            • Ceftaroline + avibactam (AstraZeneca PLC/Forest Laboratories Inc.)
                            • GSK-1322322 (GlaxoSmithKline PLC)
                            • LFF571 (Novartis AG)
                            • OPS-2071 (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.)
                            • Radezolid (Melinta Therapeutics Inc.)
                            • Ramoplanin (Nanotherapeutics Inc.)

                            Phase 3

                            Active

                            • Exblifep (cefepime + enmetazobactam) (Allecra Therapeutics GmbH)
                            • Cefepime + taniborbactam (Venatorx Pharmaceuticals Inc./Global Antibiotic Research and Development Partnership (GARDP) (Everest Medicines II Ltd. Licensee))
                            • WCK 5222 (cefepime + zidebactam) (Wockhardt Ltd.)
                            • Cefilavacin (R-Pharm)
                            • Zevtera (ceftobiprole) (Basilea Pharmaceutica International Ltd.)
                            • Sulbactam + durlobactam (Entasis Therapeutics Inc.)
                            • Gepotidacin (GSK2140944) (GlaxoSmithKline PLC)
                            • Ridinilazole (Summit Therapeutics Inc.)
                            • T-4288 (solithromycin) (Toyama Chemical Co. Ltd.)
                            • Tebipenem/tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide (Spero Therapeutics Inc.)
                            • EMROK/EMROK O (Wockhardt Ltd.)
                            • Zoliflodacin (ETX0914) (Entasis Therapeutics Inc./Global Antibiotic Research and Development Partnership (GARDP))
                            • Benapenem (Sihuan Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.)

                            Inactive

                            • Cadazolid (Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd.)
                            • Iclaprim (Motif Bio PLC)
                            • Murepavadin (POL7080) (Polyphor AG)
                            • Surotomycin (Merck & Co. Inc. (formerly Cubist Pharmaceuticals Inc.))
                            • Zabofloxacin (Dong Wha Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.)

                            New drug application

                            Active

                            • Contezolid (MRX-I)/contezolid acefosamil (MRX-4) (MicuRx Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                            • Sulopenem/sulopenem etzadroxil-probenecid (Iterum Therapeutics PLC)

                            Inactive

                              Approved

                              Active

                              • Avycaz (ceftazidime + avibactam) (AstraZeneca PLC/Actavis PLC)
                              • Baxdela (delafloxacin) (Melinta Therapeutics Inc.)
                              • Fetroja (cefiderocol) (Shionogi & Co. Ltd.)
                              • Dalvance (dalbavancin) (Durata Therapeutics Inc.)
                              • Xerava (eravacycline) (Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                              • Recarbrio (imipenem/cilastatin + relebactam) (Merck & Co. Inc.)
                              • Lasvic (lascufloxacin) (Kyorin Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.)
                              • Xenleta (lefamulin) (Nabriva Therapeutics PLC)
                              • Nuzyra (omadacycline) (Paratek Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                              • Orbactiv (oritavancin) (The Medicines Company)
                              • Zemdri (plazomicin) (Achaogen Inc.)
                              • Sivextro (tedizolid) (Cubist Pharmaceuticals Inc.)
                              • Vabomere (meropenem + vaborbactam) (The Medicines Company)
                              • Zerbaxa (ceftolozane + tazobactam) (Cubist Pharmaceuticals Inc.)

                              Inactive

                                Notes: Candidates included in this data visualization are consistent with Pew’s methodology for tracking antibiotics in clinical development. The analysis captures the status of antibiotics in the pipeline beginning in 2014, including those approved by the FDA and other regulatory agencies that year. More information about methodology and the full underlying data can be found in Pew’s latest pipeline analysis. This interactive tool is updated annually.

                                Note: This data visualization was originally published in July 2019. This title of the piece was updated for clarity on April 15, 2020. This piece was updated in March 2021 to include 2020 data.

                                Antibiotic Development
                                Antibiotic Development

                                Tracking the Pipeline of Antibiotics in Development

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                                Tracking the Pipeline of Antibiotics in Development

                                This collection page was updated in December 2017 with new content. Drug-resistant bacteria, or superbugs, present a serious and worsening threat to human health. A majority of doctors have encountered patients with infections that do not respond to available treatments, and when new drugs come to market bacteria can quickly develop resistance. According to a report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2 million Americans acquire serious infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria each year, and at least 23,000 die as a result. A sustained and robust pipeline of new antibacterial drugs and novel therapies is critical to ensure that new interventions keep pace with these evolving pathogens.

                                Gunnar Esiason
                                Gunnar Esiason
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                                Cystic Fibrosis Patient Asks for Increased Efforts Around Antibiotic Resistance

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                                Article

                                Americans combat more than 2.8 million antibiotic-resistant infections each year—a battle Gunnar Esiason, son of former NFL quarterback “Boomer” Esiason, knows all too well. Esiason lives with cystic fibrosis, a life-threatening genetic disease that affects the lungs and cells that produce mucus, puts him at an increased risk for bacterial infections, and makes him especially vulnerable to antibiotic-resistant bacteria.