The federal government spent $3.3 trillion in the states during its 2014 fiscal year.1 But the amount and composition of federal spending vary widely from state to state. As a result, federal budget decisions that increase or decrease areas of spending affect each state differently. The distribution of federal spending provides important context for understanding the effect that federal fiscal policy has on the states.
This analysis combines publicly available data sources to show the state-by-state distribution of federal spending, divided into the five major categories:2
Federal spending affects economic activity in every state. One way to gauge its relative importance is to measure total federal spending against total economic activity—also known as gross domestic product (GDP)—in each state. This provides a yardstick by which to compare federal spending across states. It is important to note, however, that this metric does not measure how much total federal spending directly contributes to each state’s economy.3
Nationally, federal spending in the states was equivalent to 19 percent of state economic activity in federal fiscal 2014, but on a state-by-state basis, the figure ranged from 32.9 percent in Mississippi to 12.5 percent in Wyoming. Federal spending in the District of Columbia was higher than in any state, at 42.4 percent. (See Figure 1.)
Multiple factors account for variations in the composition of federal spending across states, including differences in demographics and types of industries and in the decisions that state and local governments make about which public services to provide and at what levels. Because each state’s mix of federal spending is unique, the effect of a federal budget change will vary by state. For instance, in Alabama and Virginia, total federal spending was equivalent to about 30 percent of state GDP in federal fiscal 2014, but spending on salaries and wages was equivalent to 5.5 percent of Virginia’s economic activity, compared with 2.7 percent in Alabama. Consequently, Virginia’s economy would probably be more affected than Alabama’s by federal salary and wage cuts. (See Figure 2.) Note that these figures do not measure how much federal spending on salaries and wages directly contributed to each state’s economy.
Retirement and nonretirement benefits accounted for more than half of all federal spending in the states in fiscal 2014. Over one-third of total spending went to retirement benefits, including Social Security and federal employee pensions. Nonretirement benefits, the largest of which is Medicare, accounted for over one-quarter of federal spending in the states. Grants, the largest of which is Medicaid, and contracts made up roughly one-sixth and one-ninth of spending, respectively. At 9 percent, salaries and wages accounted for the smallest share. (See Figure 3.)
From fiscal 2005 to 2014, total inflation-adjusted federal spending in the states grew 25 percent, from $2.6 trillion to $3.3 trillion.4 Every category of spending increased in real terms, with the exception of contracts, which fell by 8 percent. Spending on retirement and nonretirement benefits grew the most (37 percent and 52 percent, respectively), followed by grants (13 percent) and salaries and wages (4 percent). The temporary spike in grants and nonretirement benefit payments during and immediately after the Great Recession were the result of federal stimulus aid to states, which has been almost entirely phased out. (See Figure 4.)
How changes to federal policy affect state revenue