Behavioral Health Needs Are Largely Unmet Across the U.S.

Substance use, suicide rates rise for racial and ethnic minority groups, rural Americans

Editor's note: This page was updated on May 24, 2024, to correct a numerical error.


  1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, “Key Substance Use and Mental Health Indicators in the United States: Results From the 2022 National Survey on Drug Use and Health” (2023),
  2. Ibid.
  3. R. Wyse et al., “Diversity by Race, Ethnicity, and Sex Within the U.S. Psychiatry Physician Workforce,” Academic Psychiatry 44, no. 5 (2020): 523-30.
  4. R.A. Harris, “Drug Overdose Deaths Among Non-Hispanic Black Men in the U.S.: Age-Specific Projections Through 2025,” AJPM Focus 2, no. 1 (2023).

  5. F. Akkas and A. Corr, “Black Adolescent Suicide Rate Reveals Urgent Need to Address Mental Health Care Barriers,” The Pew Charitable Trusts, April 22, 2024,
  6. S. Artiga and N. Panchal, “Gaps in Mental Health Care for Asian and Pacific Islander People and Other People of Color,” Kaiser Family Foundation, February 2, 2023,
  7. N. Panchal, H. Saunders, and N. Ndugga, “Five Key Findings on Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders by Race/Ethnicity” (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2022),
  8. M. De Witte, “Anger and Sadness Soared Following George Floyd’s Death, Particularly Among Black Americans, Stanford Psychologists Find,” Stanford News, September 20, 2021,
  9. S. Artiga et al., “Asian Immigrant Experiences With Racism, Immigration-Related Fears, and the Covid-19 Pandemic” (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2021),
  10. T. Velázquez, “Most U.S. Adults Remain Unaware of 988 Suicide and Crisis Lifeline,” The Pew Charitable Trusts, May 23, 2023,'
  11. J.T. McDaniel et al., “Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention Among Military Service Members and Veterans: Rural-Urban Disparities,” BMJ Military Health 168, no. 3 (2022): 186-91.
  12. J. Winton, “Confronting Mental Health Challenges in Rural America,” NAMI Blog (blog), National Alliance on Mental Illness, November 17, 2022,
  13. C.H.A. Andrilla et al., “Geographic Variation in the Supply of Selected Behavioral Health Providers,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 54, no. 6 Suppl 3 (2018): S199-S207.
  14. G. Sparks et al., “KFF Tracking Poll July 2023: Substance Use Crisis and Accessing Treatment” (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2023),

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