Public Pension Plans' Long-Term Fiscal Health Varies Widely Across States

Wisconsin
Getty Images

A decade of increasing pension contributions and the strong stock market rally of 2021 have combined to help stabilize state pension funds. As a result, pension plan assets have risen by more than half a trillion dollars since 2011, leading to a 50-state funded ratio—the share of pension liabilities backed by plan assets—of more than 80%, the highest since the 2008-09 recession. And total unfunded state pension obligations were less than $800 billion at the end of fiscal year 2021, the greatest progress in closing the state pension plan funding gap—the difference between plan liabilities and assets—this century.

However, not all state pension funds are approaching long-term fiscal sustainability, defined as government revenue matching expenditures without a corresponding increase in public debt. As part of a larger project to develop a fiscal sustainability matrix highlighting the practices of successful state pension systems and presenting critical 50-state data that facilitates comparative analyses and plan assessments, The Pew Charitable Trusts is producing individual state fact sheets. The data points in these fact sheets include historical outcomes from policy choices, measures of cash flow that determine long-term solvency, and indicators of risk and uncertainty.

Alaska    Arizona   California    Colorado 
Connecticut   Hawaii 
  Idaho 
  Kentucky
Montana    Nevada 
  New Jersey   New Mexico
Oregon   Pennsylvania   Tennessee   Utah 
Washington
  Wisconsin   Wyoming     

Although no one metric can tell the whole story, together these measures offer a comprehensive view of state pension funds’ fiscal sustainability: 

  • Funded ratio—the value of a plan’s assets in proportion to the pension liability—and change in funded ratio over time highlight the role of past policies in a plan’s current financial position. These historical actuarial metrics are the foundation of any fiscal assessment but provide little information to assess future risks.
  • Operating cash flow ratio and net amortization are plan financial metrics that indicate whether current policy is working effectively to avoid fiscal distress and reduce debt. Operating cash flow ratio captures the difference between contributions made to and benefits paid from a plan as a portion of total plan assets. And net amortization measures whether total contributions would have reduced unfunded liabilities had all actuarial assumptions—primarily expected investment returns—been met for the year.
  • Historical contribution volatility (the range between the lowest and highest employer contribution rate over a fixed period) and regular pension stress testing (analyses of plans’ fiscal health under different investment scenarios) help policymakers plan for future uncertainty and cost volatility. Because state and local budgets often bear the brunt of risks taken on by public pension plans, such state budgetary metrics are essential for long-term planning and can prompt reforms where needed.

Spotlight on Mental Health

Arrows are seen embedded in a target during practice for the women's individual eliminations match on August 17, 2004 during the Athens 2004 Summer Olympic Games at Panathinaiko Stadium in Athens, Greece.
Arrows are seen embedded in a target during practice for the women's individual eliminations match on August 17, 2004 during the Athens 2004 Summer Olympic Games at Panathinaiko Stadium in Athens, Greece.
Issue Brief

Pew's Fiscal Sustainability Matrix Assess Pension Health

Quick View
Issue Brief

The combined effect of a decade of increasing pension contributions and the strong market rally of 2021 has had a stabilizing effect on state pension plans. Taken together, these factors contributed over half a trillion dollars to current plan assets.

bridge
bridge
Issue Brief

State Pension Plans Have Stabilized in Wake of Pandemic

Quick View
Issue Brief

The nation’s state retirement systems finished the 2021 fiscal year in their best condition since the Great Recession of 2007-09. According to projections by The Pew Charitable Trusts, the gap between the cost of pension benefits that states have promised their workers and what they have set aside to pay for them dropped in 2021 to its lowest level in more than a decade. Pew estimates that state retirement systems are now over 80% funded for the first time since 2008.

reporting charts
reporting charts
Article

Pension Risk Reporting Updated for Pandemic's Impacts

Quick View
Article

As states begin to respond to the economic impact of the pandemic and the subsequent recession, public pension funding will likely be among the issues at the forefront of budget discussions. Although plan assets largely recovered from the financial market drop at the start of the crisis in March 2020, an estimated 6% to 11% decline in state revenues nationwide has, in some cases, limited states’ ability to make full annual contributions to their pension plans.

Composite image of modern city network communication concept

Learn the Basics of Broadband from Our Limited Series

Sign up for our four-week email course on Broadband Basics

Quick View

How does broadband internet reach our homes, phones, and tablets? What kind of infrastructure connects us all together? What are the major barriers to broadband access for American communities?

Pills illustration
Pills illustration

What Is Antibiotic Resistance—and How Can We Fight It?

Sign up for our four-week email series The Race Against Resistance.

Quick View

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria, also known as “superbugs,” are a major threat to modern medicine. But how does resistance work, and what can we do to slow the spread? Read personal stories, expert accounts, and more for the answers to those questions in our four-week email series: Slowing Superbugs.

Explore Pew’s new and improved
Fiscal 50 interactive

Your state's stats are more accessible than ever with our new and improved Fiscal 50 interactive:

  • Maps, trends, and customizable charts
  • 50-state rankings
  • Analysis of what it all means
  • Shareable graphics and downloadable data
  • Proven fiscal policy strategies

Explore

Welcome to the new Fiscal 50

Key changes include:

  • State pages that help you keep track of trends in your home state and provide national and regional context.
  • Interactive indicator pages with highly customizable and shareable data visualizations.
  • A Budget Threads feature that offers Pew’s read on the latest state fiscal news.

Learn more about the new and improved Fiscal 50.