Tainted Frozen Vegetables Prompt Latest Ingredient-Driven Foodborne Illness Outbreak

Contamination poses challenge for investigators and regulators

Ingredient-driven foodborne illness outbreaks make for complex investigations.© Shutterstock

The investigation into contaminated frozen vegetables involved manufacturers and regulators working to protect consumers from further illnesses.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention declared the frozen vegetable recall over on July 15, 2016. This analysis was updated July 21, 2016, to include the final number of products recalled.

A recent incident of Listeria contamination linked to frozen vegetables was linked to nine illnesses and three deaths across state and national lines. At least 450 products used the vegetables, which were distributed to retailers in all 50 states and four Canadian provinces.

Ingredient-driven outbreaks make for complex investigations. When a single contaminated ingredient is included in hundreds or even thousands of products, the potential for illness increases exponentially. It becomes extremely challenging to identify the contaminated food. Other ingredient-driven outbreaks that have occurred in recent years include one linked to pine nuts that were used in pesto, salads, and baked goods, and another associated with sunflower seeds found in a variety of trail mixes.

In fact, an ingredient-driven outbreak powered enactment of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), the first major overhaul of the U.S. food system in 70 years. In 2009, Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter and peanut products sickened more than 700 people and led to nine deaths. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, nearly 3,000 peanut products—including crackers, cookies, and granola bars produced by a variety of companies—may have been made with the contaminated ingredients produced by the Peanut Corporation of America (PCA). Illnesses spread throughout the country as investigators raced to identify the source of contamination. It took months to pinpoint the tainted products, and to then track down the number of items, retailers, and distributors involved. Meanwhile, people kept getting sick.

The PCA outbreak underscored the importance of a prevention-based approach to foodborne contamination, codified in FSMA. The law requires food manufacturers to take proactive steps to prevent food safety problems. Companies that supply food ingredients must adhere to adequate food safety practices. Manufacturers must develop safety plans for their processing facilities, which identify possible points of contamination and steps to mitigate them, and monitor the effectiveness of those efforts. When problems arise, food processors must work diligently to correct them.

The investigation into contaminated frozen vegetables is ongoing, with both manufacturers and regulators working to protect consumers from further illnesses. The new prevention-based requirements for food-processing facilities will begin to go into effect in September 2016. 

National Homeownership Month


Foodborne Illness Outbreaks

Costly and preventable

Quick View

Each year, foods contaminated with bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens sicken an estimated 48 million Americans and cause between $15 billion to more than $70 billion in health-related costs. These illnesses can be significantly reduced if producers and regulators adopt prevention-based strategies to decrease the risk of contamination that can make people sick. Pew’s research and policy recommendations inform researchers, the food industry, federal food safety regulators, and the lawmakers who provide oversight and funding for food safety programs. This collection explores lessons learned from recent outbreaks, and steps that producers and federal authorities have taken—or could take—to prevent future ones.

Composite image of modern city network communication concept

Learn the Basics of Broadband from Our Limited Series

Sign up for our four-week email course on Broadband Basics

Quick View

How does broadband internet reach our homes, phones, and tablets? What kind of infrastructure connects us all together? What are the major barriers to broadband access for American communities?

Pills illustration
Pills illustration

What Is Antibiotic Resistance—and How Can We Fight It?

Sign up for our four-week email series The Race Against Resistance.

Quick View

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria, also known as “superbugs,” are a major threat to modern medicine. But how does resistance work, and what can we do to slow the spread? Read personal stories, expert accounts, and more for the answers to those questions in our four-week email series: Slowing Superbugs.