Note: Alaska and Hawaii are not included because of data limitations. Federal programs include the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Public Assistance, Flood Mitigation Assistance, Hazard Mitigation, and Pre-Disaster Mitigation grant programs, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Community Development Block Grant Program, and 18 U.S. Department of Commerce Economic Development Administration programs. Because the National Institute of Building Sciences uses a representative sample of mitigation projects for its calculation, small sample sizes in some states mean that their state- and hazard-specific ratios may be less definitive than those for other states.

Sources: Pew’s analysis of data from the National Institute of Building Sciences; written communication with Keith Porter, co-president, SPA Risk LLC, and National Institute of Building Sciences, April 13, 2018, using data from Multihazard Mitigation Council; National Institute of Building Sciences, Multihazard Mitigation Council, “Natural Hazard Mitigation Saves: 2017 Interim Report: An Independent Study.” Principal Investigator Porter, K.; co-Principal Investigators Scawthorn, C.; Dash, N.; Santos, J.; Investigators: Eguchi, M., Ghosh., S., Huyck, C., Isteita, M., Mickey, K., Rashed, T.; P. Schneider, Director, MMC. National Institute of Building Sciences, Washington, DC. (April 2018).