Conserving Marine Life in the United States


Gulf Coast
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The Gulf of Mexico is the world’s ninth-largest body of water and an economic engine that supports millions of people and jobs in ecotourism, fishing, and other coastal businesses. But that payoff depends upon healthy ecosystems with abundant fish and wildlife.

Florida’s Gulf Coast is home to the largest continuous seagrass beds in the country. The marine meadows provide food, oxygen, and homes for valuable shellfish, including shrimp, crabs, and scallops as well as finfish such as seatrout, snappers and groupers. About 70 percent of species that fishermen target in Florida, the “Fishing Capital of the World,” use seagrass at some point in their lives. However, fertilizers, coastal development, and careless boaters threaten this habitat.

Oyster reefs are another of the Gulf’s major assets. They provide habitat for diverse marine animals and, like seagrass, help reduce erosion and improve water quality by filtering or trapping pollutants. The Gulf is the country’s major source of wild-caught oysters, with Louisiana supplying the majority of the harvest. Yet pollution, poor water quality, warming waters, rising seas, and other problems are placing increasing stress on oyster populations, which are plummeting throughout the Gulf.

And other Gulf habitats are also facing threats. Ancient and fragile deep-sea coral ecosystems, which are found from hundreds to thousands of feet below the surface, play host to abundant marine life and contain properties that are producing innovative medical treatments. But oil spills as well as trawls and other harmful fishing gear can take a toll.

Protecting these delicate habitats is essential, as is adopting fishing rules that foster sustainable fishing practices, adhere to science-based catch limits, and consider predator-prey relationships and the broader ecosystem. 

With proper planning, future generations can continue to enjoy the Gulf’s environmental jewels and the economic benefits they provide.

Florida Plays Host to Abundant Seagrass

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Along Florida’s west coast, seagrass meadows bolster economic activity by nurturing commercially important fish, stone crabs, and shrimp and drawing tourists from around the world for manatee watching, scalloping, fishing, snorkeling, and paddle sports.

Ancient Corals Need Protection From Modern Threats

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Gulf of Mexico deep-sea corals form diverse habitat communities consisting of reefs, mounds, and undersea forests that are home to starfish, squat lobsters, crabs, sharks, and many species of fish, including grouper and snapper. These fragile and slow-growing corals thrive in the cold, dark ocean depths.

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Salt marsh
Salt marsh

How Southeast Stakeholders Are Safeguarding Salt Marshes

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Salt marshes are grassy coastal expanses with meandering channels that fill with seawater and drain again as tides ebb and flow. They provide food, shelter, and nursery grounds for birds, fish, and myriad other wildlife. Healthy salt marshes filter runoff, reduce erosion, stabilize shorelines, protect against storm surge, and support species that are crucial to recreational and commercial fishing, waterfowl hunting, birding, and other activities.

Protecting the Prey

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Forage fish hold Florida’s marine food webs together. They are a critical food source for fish and wildlife and make up nearly 20 percent of the commercial catch off Florida’s shores.


Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper Restoration

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Gulf of Mexico red snapper are on the road to recovery after decades of severe overfishing. Federally mandated catch limits form the foundation of a strong rebuilding plan that began in 2007 and is delivering results. Today, red snapper are more plentiful, larger, and spreading out across the Gulf.