For state-by-state data please see the tables below.

Enrollment In Medicaid

Medicaid covers more than 20 percent of Americans over the course of the year. Enrollment varies across states because of factors such as poverty rates, state decisions to expand coverage above federal minimums, and the reach of employer-sponsored health insurance.17

In 2010, states with the highest percentage of residents below the FPL—New Mexico, Mississippi, and the District of Columbia—also were among those with the highest percentage of residents enrolled in Medicaid.18 Other states with high Medicaid enrollment rates provided at least limited Medicaid coverage to individuals above federal requirements.197 California's Medicaid program, for example, covers only family planning services for 1.8 million people otherwise ineligible for Medicaid.20 Vermont provides full Medicaid benefits to nondisabled adults at a level substantially above the federal minimum requirement.21

The percentage of state residents covered by Medicaid will increase dramatically starting this year in states that expand their Medicaid eligibility through the Affordable Care Act.22

Medicaid enrollment and uninsured rates


For state-by-state data please see the tables below.

Comparing Medicaid enrollment trends with other health insurance coverage

The proportion of Americans covered by employer-sponsored health insurance decreased between 2000 and 2012, with declines particularly pronounced during economic downturns. In contrast, enrollment in Medicaid and Medicare increased during those times, as did the percentage of uninsured Americans. Although actual Medicaid enrollment data are available only through 2010, U.S. Census Bureau survey estimates show that Medicaid enrollment continued to rise in 2011 but leveled off in 2012.23

Medicaid enrollment increased 50 percent over the last decade, from 44 million to 66 million people. This growth is one of the major drivers of the program's increases in spending over this time.24 Growth occurred again under the Affordable Care Act. Medicaid enrollment started to increase in 2014, especially in states that expanded their programs to cover previously ineligible low-income childless adults.25

Health insurance coverage by source as a percent of the population