Fact Sheet

Effects of Banning the Use of Antibiotics as Growth Promoters in Denmark and Scandinavia

Major Reports and Journal Articles



  • Aarestrup, F.M., V.F. Jensen, H.D. Emborg, E. Jacobsen, and H.C. Wegener. July 2010. “Changes in the use of antimicrobials and the effects on productivity of swine farms in Denmark,” American Journal of Veterinary Research 71(7): 726-733.
  • Aarestrup, F.M., A.M. Seyfarth, H.D. Emborg, K. Pedersen, R.S. Hendriksen, and F. Bager. July 2001. “Effect of Abolishment of the Use of Antimicrobial Agents for Growth Promotion on Occurrence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Fecal Enterococci from Food Animals in Denmark,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 45(7): 2054-2059. Available at: http://aac.asm.org/cgi/reprint/45/7/2054.
  • Bager, F., H.D. Emborg, F.M. Aarestrup, and H.C. Wegener. 2007. DANMAP: The Danish experience following the ban on antimicrobial growth promoters: trends in microbial resistance and antimicrobial use. Available at: http://en.engormix.com/MA-pig-industry/nutrition/articles/danmap-danish-experience-following_330.htm.
  • Bengtsson, B. and M. Wierup. 2006. “Antimicrobial Resistance in Scandinavia after Ban of Antimicrobial Growth Promoters,” Animal Biotechnology 17(2): 147-156.
  • Boerlin, P., A. Wissing, F. M. Aarestrup, J. Frey, and J. Nicolet. 2001. “Antimicrobial Growth Promoter Ban and Resistance to Macrolides and Vancomycin in Enterococci from Pigs,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology 39(11): 4193–4195. Available at: http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/reprint/39/11/4193.
  • Evans, M.C. and H.C. Wegener. 2003. “Antimicrobial Growth Promoters and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. In Poultry and Swine, Denmark,” Emerging Infectious Diseases 9(4): 489-492. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol9no4/pdfs/02-0325.pdf.
  • Gravea, K., V.F. Jensen, K. Odensvik, M. Wierup, and M. Bangen. 2006. "Usage of veterinary therapeutic antimicrobials in Denmark, Norway and Sweden following termination of antimicrobial growth promoter use," Preventive Veterinary Medicine 75(1-2): 123-132.
  • Monnet, D.L., H.D. Emborg, S.R. Andersen, C. Schöller, T.L. Sørensen, and F. Bager. 2000. "Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance in Denmark,5(12). Available at: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=21.
  • Wierup, M. 2001. "The Swedish experience of the 1986 year ban of antimicrobial growth promoters, with special reference to animal health, disease prevention, productivity, and usage of antimicrobials," Microbial Drug Resistance 7(2): 183-90. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11442345

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Heather Cable