Pew’s Fiscal 50: State Trends and Analysis presents 50-state data on key fiscal, economic, and demographic indicators and analyzes their impact on states’ long-term fiscal health.
States have regained much of the fiscal and economic ground they lost in the Great Recession, but not all have fully rebounded, despite nine years of recovery. Some states are in a stronger position than others as they try to gauge how long the economic recovery will last and how federal tax reform and White House and congressional funding priorities could affect their finances.
Slow tax revenue growth produced years of tight budgets in many states. Sixteen states still collect less tax revenue than at their recession-era peaks, after adjusting for inflation, and most have a thinner financial cushion than they did before the last downturn. In addition, 40 states’ estimated employment rates still trail 2007 levels. Despite these challenges, personal income in all states has bounced back above pre-recession figures, though growth has fallen short of historic norms.
Decade After Recession Began, Tax Revenue Higher in 34 States. A decade after the start of the Great Recession, 34 states—the most yet—were taking in more tax revenue at the end of 2017 than before receipts plunged in the downturn, after accounting for inflation. States with below-peak tax revenue still have less purchasing power than they did before receipts plunged in the recession. But state to state, the recovery has been uneven because of differences in economic conditions as well as tax policy choices. Nationally, total state tax revenue recovered in mid-2013 from its plunge during the recession but has rebounded more slowly than after the three previous downturns. View the indicator or print the analysis.
State Rainy Day Funds Grow Even as Total Balances Lag. States have made progress in rebuilding their financial cushions after tapping them to plug budget gaps during the recession. Still, at the end of fiscal year 2017, only 14 states could cover more government expenses using general fund total balances—counting rainy day funds and ending balances—than they could have in fiscal 2007, just before the recession. Rainy day funds have regained more ground than ending balances, with 26 states’ rainy day funds exceeding pre-recession levels when measured as a share of operating costs. View the indicator or print the analysis.
Employment Rate Up Again, but Lags Pre-Recession High. The U.S. employment rate for adults of prime working age rose in 2017 for a seventh consecutive year, though no state could boast that its core labor pool had clearly surpassed its pre-recession employment rate. The share of prime-working-age adults (ages 25 to 54) with a job clearly remained below pre-recession levels nationally and in 10 states. Employment rates for this population were lower than in 2007 in another 30 states and higher in 10, but not by statistically significant amounts, so the results were inconclusive. View the indicator or print the analysis.
State Economic Growth Uneven Since Recession. Since the Great Recession hit the U.S. a decade ago, the economy’s slow and lengthy recovery has played out unevenly across states. Growth has been fastest in North Dakota, where the total income among its residents expanded at six times the rate of last-place Connecticut. The final state to regain its personal income losses, Nevada, did so as recently as 2015. Personal income has staggered at times over the past decade. Following two years of robust gains, sluggish growth in 2016 and 2017 reflected personal income drops in a number of states. View the indicator or print the analysis.
Even states that have overcome the effects of the recession may face financial and demographic pressures that could shape their budgets now and for years to come. A number of state governments face fiscal constraints today because of inherited shortfalls, such as unfunded public pension and retiree health care liabilities that total more than $1.5 trillion nationwide, and recurring deficits between annual state revenue and expenses. Rising costs for Medicaid, a health care program that accounts for the largest share of total federal aid to states, are another challenge for states. Other issues are tax revenue volatility, which can confound policymakers’ efforts to balance budgets, and population change, which affects economic prospects, revenue collections, and service needs.
Long-Term Obligations Vary as a Share of State Resources. Unfunded pension benefits were the largest, most prominent, and fastest-growing of a selection of future costs facing states as of 2013. States reported $968 billion in unfunded pension costs—the equivalent of 6.9 percent of 50-state personal income, as well as $587 billion in unfunded retiree health care liabilities (4.2 percent of personal income) and $518 billion in outstanding debt (3.7 percent). If not properly managed, these costs can limit future budget flexibility and raise borrowing costs. View the indicator or print the analysis.
Revenue Trails Expenses Over Long Term in 11 States. Even as they dealt with two recessions, most states amassed sufficient revenue between fiscal years 2002 and 2016 to cover all their expenses. But total revenue in 11 states fell short, jeopardizing those states’ long-term fiscal flexibility and pushing off to future taxpayers some past costs for operating government and providing services. States can withstand periodic deficits without endangering their fiscal health over the long run. But chronic shortfalls are one indication of a more serious, unsustainable structural deficit in which revenue will continue to fall short of spending absent policy changes. View the indicator or print the analysis.
More Than 17 Percent of State Revenue Goes to Medicaid. The share of states’ own money spent on Medicaid grew in every state between fiscal 2000 and 2016. States’ increases varied widely, however, from less than 1 cent to about 14 cents more per dollar of state-generated revenue, exerting different degrees of budget pressure. Medicaid’s claim on state revenue surged in the wake of the Great Recession, after temporary federal economic stimulus dollars expired but before the federally funded expansion of Medicaid eligibility began, and has remained stable since. Medicaid is most state governments’ second biggest expense, after K-12 education. View the indicator or print the analysis.. View the indicator or print the analysis.
Years of Slower Population Growth Persisted in 2017. All but two states saw their population rise over the past decade. Continuing a long-term trend, however, growth nationally and in a majority of states is estimated to have slowed over the past 10 years. Eight states—the most in almost 30 years—lost residents in 2017 alone, although growth trends among states vary. Population changes are tied to states’ economic fortunes and government finances, and are therefore useful for understanding both. View the indicator or print the analysis.
Federal Share of State Revenue Rises as Medicaid Grants Expand. The federal government is the second-largest source of state revenue—accounting for 31.9 percent of the total in fiscal 2015—meaning that federal budget decisions also play a key role in state budgets. But states’ reliance on federal funds varies widely, ranging from about 18 percent of revenue in North Dakota to more than 42 percent in Louisiana and Mississippi. The share of states’ revenue made up by federal dollars increased in fiscal 2015 to the third-largest on record, capturing the first full year of expanded Medicaid eligibility in some states. View the indicator or print the analysis.
States’ Tax Revenue Volatility Poses Varying Budget Challenges. Some states experience greater swings in tax revenue from year to year than others do, leading to surprise shortfalls or windfalls that can make it hard to manage budgets. Alaska experienced the greatest volatility over the past two decades and South Dakota the least, after removing the effects of tax policy changes. Taxes on corporate income and oil and mineral extraction were consistently more volatile than other major tax streams. View the indicator or print the analysis.
Taxes and federal funds are among the revenue sources for individual states.
Taxes make up about half of state government revenue, with the bulk coming from levies on personal income and general sales of goods and services.