Public subsidies to French fisheries
A subsidy is assistance paid to a business or economic sector, often to prevent the decline of that industry or to encourage job creation. Typically funded by government, subsidies have a complicated relationship to trade, ecological sustainability, and economics. In the case of fisheries, research has demonstrated that roughly 60 percent of global subsidies reduce fishing expenses such as fuel, boats, and infrastructure and thus promote fishing even when it would not otherwise be profitable. Such fishing subsidies have been identified as a major impediment to sustainable management of marine resources, because they can encourage overfishing or fishing in vulnerable habitats where it would normally not be economically feasible. France, like other countries, has a record of providing substantial financial assistance to its fishing sector and continues to do so despite ample evidence of the harmful nature of most subsidies.
Claire Nouvian's Pew Fellowship project will focus on bringing transparency to the domain of public financial support given to French fisheries. Her project will collect and analyze published information as well as unreleased data on French fisheries subsidies. She will also formulate recommendations for policy reforms to promote long-term economic and ecological sustainability of the fishing sector by working to establish public expenditures that comply with sustainable fisheries management objectives of the European Union and international law.
Claire Nouvian is president and founder of the nonprofit conservation organization BLOOM, based in Paris and Hong Kong. Her research and activities focus on deep-sea fisheries and shark consumption habits. In Asia, Nouvian and BLOOM co-workers aim to improve the degraded conservation status of shark populations by ultimately making shark fin soup a socially undesirable dish. Nouvian's approach is designed to engage corporations to act as opinion leaders in society, specifically the luxury segment of the hospitality industry, to make bans of shark dishes part of corporate policies. In Europe, Nouvian is dedicated to studying the nature of deep-sea fishing. Her work on this topic has included the organization of a press conference and "science tour" of political entities, a scientific workshop on deep-sea fisheries in an ecosystem-based context, and a legal workshop on deep-sea bottom trawling. She conducted a detailed analysis on the few remaining deep-sea fishing companies in France to reveal that despite receiving substantial public subsidies, the three main fleet owners are chronically unprofitable. While producing this analysis, Nouvian identified public aid to French fisheries as an area worthy of in-depth research and increased transparency.
Before starting BLOOM, Nouvian worked in television production and journalism, specializing in wildlife and scientific documentaries. She spent an extended period filming in the jungles of Asia, Africa, and South America and eventually contracted two tropical diseases. Luckily Nouvian had already discovered a fascination with the deep sea. Her convalescence allowed her to craft a book, The Deep, published in 2006, and an exhibition of the same name, opened in 2007 at the Natural History Museum in Paris, which present the best specimens, pictures, and film clips that have been gathered by oceanographers over the past 20-25 years.
Today, the exhibition and book have reached more than 287 million people. Additionally, Nouvian is involved with education through art and science projects engaging students. She lectures on deep-sea fisheries, fisheries negotiations, public fisheries subsidies, and sustainable development communication strategy at several universities including University of Geneva, Sciences Po (Public Affairs and Environmental Diplomacy), AgroParisTech/ENGREF, University of Hong Kong, University of Rhode Island, and University of Zagreb. While wonder drew her to the depths of the ocean, finding out about deep-sea fishing prompted Nouvian to focus on combating destructive fishing practices. She developed BLOOM as a base to put an end to deep-sea bottom trawling and advocate before governments and institutions in favor of the protection of the ocean's depths. Nouvian holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in history from Sorbonne University in Paris.
University of Paris IV Sorbonne (1995-96), B.A in History
Liberal Arts preparatory class (Hypokhâgne / Khâgne) in Lyon (1992-94)
Languages: French, English, Spanish, Russian, Mandarin & German
2010–Present: Art/Science high school contests on the deep ocean in France "2000 Meters Below the Sea" (collaboration with the NGO "Les Atomes Crochus").
2009–Present: A musical puppet show (thriller) for kids about marine conservation The Shark Squad (coproduction with the NGO 'Et Demain' & the Brest Aquarium).
2007–Present: Exhibition The Deep travelled to 7 countries, over 1.5 million visitors.
2006–Present: Book The Deep published in 10 languages, over 150 000 copies printed.
- Member of the Advisory Committee of the Nereus Program, which aims to develop scientific capability for predictions on future seafood production (collaboration between the Universities of British Columbia, Princeton, Duke, Stockholm and Cambridge/UNEP-WCMC).
- Member of Ocean Park's Education Advisory Committee. Located in Hong Kong since 1977, Ocean Park receives about 5 million visitors annually which makes it one of the world's most attended theme parks.
- Member of the Scientific Committee of the Science for the Youth Festival "Paris Montagne" of the Ecole Normale Supérieure.
2005–Present: President of the non-profit organization BLOOM in Paris and Hong Kong: political and corporate advocacy, independent research, public awareness, education, lecturing (The University of Geneva, The Paris Political Science Institute – Sciences Po, The Paris Institute of Technology for Life, Food and Environmental Sciences – AgroParisTech).
2007: Curator of the exhibition The Deep at the Natural History Museum in Paris (followed by an ongoing international tour of the exhibition).
2006: Author of the book The Deep (Fayard, France / University of Chicago Press, USA with subsequent translations into 8 languages).
2006: Curator of the art exhibition showing the work of Claire Basler at the Bank of China in Hong Kong (part of the "French May" Festival). She also wrote and photographed the artist's work for the Claire Basler's catalogue of paintings.
2002–2004: Freelance TV Director & Writer (3 films).
1998–2002: TV Producer, Executive Producer & Production Coordinator for Télé Images Nature production company (13 films).
1995–1998: Freelance Journalist & Journalist Assistant mainly for German press & media.
- The Market for Shark Liver Oil and Squalene. Romain Chabrol – in prep.
- Europe's Reduction Fisheries. Megan Bailey and Claire Nouvian – in prep.
- Shark consumption habits and attitudes in Hong Kong. Kwok Ho Shea, Jennifer Jacquet, Isabel Jarrett, Claire Nouvian – Being corrected for resubmission to Conservation Letters.
- The Ecological and Socio-Economic Profile of Deep-Sea Fisheries. Claire Nouvian, in collaboration with L. Watling & D. Berger, May 2011.
- Fish Consumption in School Canteens: Do our children eat at-risk fish species? Victoire Guilloneau and Claire Nouvian, May 2011.
- Can Ecosystem-Based Deep-Sea Fishing Be Sustained? Report of a workshop held 31 August – 3 September, 2010, Neuville-Bosc, France. L. Watling, R.L. Haedrich, J. Devine, J. Drazen, M.R. Dunn, M. Gianni, K. Baker, G. Cailliet, I. Figueiredo, P.M. Kyne, G. Menezes, F. Neat, A. Orlov, P. Duran, J.A. Perez, J.A. Ardron, J. Bezaury, C. Revenga, C. Nouvian. May 2011, University of Maine, Darling Marine Center Special Publication 11-1.
- (Book The Deep) was voted onto the final 2008 Best Books for Young Adults list of the American Library Association.
- (Book The Deep) "Beau Livre" Award from the Navy Academy, French Ministry of Defense, 2007.
- (Book The Deep) Literary Prize from the French "Cercle de la Mer," 2007. Wissenschaftsbuch des Jahres (Scientific Book of the Year), 2007, German Bild der Wissenchaft.
- (Book The Deep) International Prize for the Best Underwater Image Book, Special Mention, 33rd World Festival of Underwater Pictures, Antibes, 2006.
- (Documentary) Best Adventure Documentary Prize at the Amazonas World Film Festival (Manaus, Brazil, 2005) for the 52' scientific documentary Expedition to the Abyss (Ex Nihilo / ARTE / IFREMER / The Science Channel).
- (Documentary) First Prize at the International Scientific Film Festival Pariscience (Paris, 2005) for the 52' documentary Aquanauts (Ex Nihilo/ ARTE / IFREMER).
- (Documentary) 2nd Prize and Best Music Prize at the 34th World Festival of Underwater Pictures (Toulon, France, 2002) as well as Bronze Award (3rd Prize) at the 29th World Festival of Underwater Pictures (Antibes, France, 2002) for the 52' documentary Night Underwater (France 2 / Discovery Channel).