Charming, quirky, and charismatic, the 18 species of penguin that populate the Southern Hemisphere have adapted over time to become elite swimmers and divers and to thrive in extreme conditions. These iconic birds are also sentinels of ocean health, and changes to their populations can indicate trouble for other species that depend on a robust food web.

Interference from humans in the form of pollution, habitat degradation, introduced predators, and overfishing is affecting the health of penguins. The Pew Charitable Trusts' global penguin conservation campaign will work to restore and protect breeding and feeding grounds in the coastal waters of countries throughout the Southern Hemisphere, as well as advocate to establish large, no-take marine reserves in Antarctica's Southern Ocean.

Although reserves do not mitigate the impacts of climate change, they help species such as penguins build resilience, abundance and diversity, and provide refuge from increased fishing pressures.

Learn more about the global penguin conservation campaign: www.pewenvironment.org/penguins.